Ocean Wave Energy Company

OWEC® Inception

1978. Now offshore and floating solar or wind electrical generation is demonstrated and reaching for utility-scale. MHK marine hydrokinetics nearshore activity is increased but largely untapped from ocean currents, salinity and thermal gradients, tides, and waves. Always active oceans cover nearly three quarters of Earth's surface with saltwater film 139.4 million "square" miles (224.3 million kilometers) in breadth and average depth of 2.4 miles (3.9 km), a delicate fraction of Earth's 7,914 mile (12,736 km) diameter. The hydrogen-oxygen hydrosphere, churning toward calm of equilibrium between air, fresh precipitation, and salty evaporation, is continually self-balancing flux agent. Its dynamic waters directly react to changing gravitational influences of celestial body motions, Sun's variable effects on spinning terrestrial sphere, wind and cloud motions, whorling currents of thermal and pressure gradients, seismic activity, or pod and large school movements. Displacing 64 pounds per cubic foot (29 kilograms per 0.0283 cu. meter) volume, the dense kinetic energy of ocean waves continually interacts and together concentrates these several dynamic processes. Combining or cancelling their flows, merging currents and eddies express surface fluctuations over wide range of amplitude from bumpy smallest ripples’ uphill crests and down valley troughs to rogues and the biggest tsunami.

Interest accelerates to use perpetual waves’ energy. Breaking waves along coastlines are sensorily prominent and tempt convenient applications. They are in shape change conformations that actually lose energy to increasing bottom friction, often elegant curling, and confused exhaustion bubbling ashore. Others slam and reflect off hard surfaces, chop, and frequently cancel or stand incoming waves. Oceandustrial imposition, to any extent, intrinsically impacts surroundings. Some works of avoided predeterminations or conscious ignorance, particularly bottom-related technology constructions near land/water interface, have often obvious detrimental effect. Comprising pre-existent natural process and upwelling life of sublimely intertwined biodiversity, littoral edges or margins and shorelines are best unperturbed. Increasingly identified for designation as MPA Marine Protected Areas, many zones are compromised, nearing irreversible failure from humanity’s landward encroachment, and devastate from major seaside technology envelopments. With little exception but for docks, seawalls, breakwaters, or adaptive farming, and despite inconvenience of distance, farther to sea are fundamentally least true cost application sites that account spatial, environmental, species, and societal factors. Decided was to principally forego nearshore locales and to broadly utilize offshore and deeper ocean sites.

Mostly driven by winds interactions, and essentially unaffected by seafloor, deep water wave incidence is several times the energy of coastal locations. Widespread planes of active seawater comprise vast area power extents. Waves’ mass momentum more than accounts comparatively slow speeds. Like a very large kinetic storage battery of potent density, performance measures characterize as oscillating low frequency energy horizontally transporting unimpeded for long distance, duration, and regularly having large storm forces. Offshore and deep waves also are more complex. Irregular variations of wave shape, size, and motion are defined by Sea States, 0 through 9, that correlate to (Beaufort) Wind Forces 0 through 12. Sea conditions are qualitatively described by visual indicators progressing from “calm glassy” or “rippled”, “smooth wavelets”, slight, moderate (chop), or rough seas having “scattered and more numerous whitecaps”, to very rough “spray”, high and very high “streaking foam”, and then phenomenal “completely white seas” of crashing overtops. Saltier experiential descriptors abound. Majority energetic wavescapes generate from at least two directions. Viewed from above, composite wave fields’ secondary and tertiary cross-driven interference patterns basically resemble wrinkly skins of curvy parallelograms, triangles, and radially lapping point load expressions. Wave procession temporary water sculptures, though difficult to finely paint and academically describe, are virtually becoming accurately modeled. Meteorological instruments, space observers from several of over 1,000 satellites, atmospheric, and those installed at many locations or travelling along and below Earth’s oceans, constantly improve understanding of intricate aero-hydrodynamics. Combining by triangulation several regional observers’ spatially separated data reference points helps to characterize wave fields energy, dominant direction, and travel duration. Applied to ocean energy maps, unlike puffs, lulls, and clouds, waves’ consistent passages are spatially and temporally highly predictable. Analytical algorithms enable accurate wide area forcecasts 6 to 16 days in advance of regional arrival- reliable knowledge for mariners’ intended travel, fixed assets status, and power conditioning at machine level granularity.

Deepwater stationed floating devices with time encounter more variable seas than motive vessels capable of avoiding foulest weather. WEC wave energy converter industry purports that different sea states require distinct designs. Inferred is that several WEC types must be co-located at a power generation site, or quickly moved there, to accommodate changing seas. Presumably at all times only some wave energy converters satisfactorily function in various sea states. From impractical precept is falsely implied little purpose for testing and analyzing models used in lofting larger marine structures and vessels. While some components and materials may be proportionally changed relative to overall structure, similar to growing from child to adult or zooming a computer image, various sizes of conformally scalable one-design WEC modules and protected direct-drive components operate in wide sea state bandwidth of offshore and deeper interference waves. For all marine structures from wave tank models, through TRL Technology Readiness Level scale-up tests, to full size machinery operating at deeper locations, reduction to most impactful sea quality is occurrence of annual maximum, dominant, and average wave H height- the vertical distance between crest tops and trough bottoms. This lone “wave scalability factor” by extension determines technology size specification for any site. Significant H measures from the average of largest 33% of waves. Second essential energy component is T time period, herein referred as “P”, that successive similar wave segments pass a stationary reference. L length variations effect wave steepness. In all but lowest sea states, on average, the most energetic waves present numerical values for H, expressed in feet, that are nearly equal to or greater than P expressed in seconds. Increasing frequency of such dynamics accompanies storms of growing severity. As more rapidly changing thermal influences shift local reliabilities, still, average and maximum wave H and P are estimated from records of usually 100 to 1,000 waves at any time of place. Over longer duration, their integrated values form known annual power spectrums used in specifying wave energy converter sizes.

Above ocean currents, simply, deeper wave fields move horizontally across sea surface, further on called “hydroface”- the interface of primarily electron bonded H20 hydrogen-oxygen water liquid and predominantly nitrogen-oxygen air gas. Sinusoidal wave crests and troughs impart repetitive vertical water level changes passing any specific location. Their undulations below cause orbital water particle motions that diminish in substrata at depths corresponding to the size and period of the waves. Viscous horizontal shear and pressure beneath reduce turbulence toward equilibrium. In architectural sense, the lower water column is compelling “foundational reference” stabilizing element relative to wave-activated floating bodies. Effort to support energized equipment above hydroface, such as wind turbines, floating solar arrays, or a gravity defying swimmer lifting a water filled bucket overhead, becomes greater with height than for submerged equipment. Empty bucket, held at depth near rim, displaces liquid water mass equal to its volume. The air-pressured interior returns an upward buoyancy force that floats the bucket and grasping swimmer. Using active buoyancy control and sea anchorage, submerged gas enclosing structures are self-referencing and neutrally maintained at comparatively calmer depths than fluctuating hydroface and floating components. Their relative motions are usefully converted.

Waves concentrated energy but diffuse fields require dispersed electromechanical systems operating in harsh settings. Widespread pulsations bare practical limitations of materials use and procedures that partly restrain wave energy converter industrialization. Considering increments, ocean-based installations displace some amount water that contributes to raising sea level. True cost mantras precaution the technical approach: “Minimum systems have minimum impact” and “If less is there, there’s less to tear”. Such constructions displace least water. WEC designs exemplified By Others are commonly absent a most important element for DER distributed energy resource utilization. Development of singular or close-located groups of single point-of-use devices divert application from direct energy conversion of multipoint generated, multidirectional field waves at the times they locally promulgate and subside. Single device peripheral infrastructure and costs as mooring and energy transmission quickly escalate when not functionally shared among WEC group arrays. To generate utility grade power, frugal interface with vast DER suggests that, if a “large bucket of investment is thrown” at kinetic wave fields, it also must reign over diffuse technology installations that are openly spread, point-to-point, yet horizontally joined together in melding correlation along and near below planar hydroface. Systems that adapt for use and let nature’s energies restore may be deemed perpetual to extent of apparatus operating life. Distinct from alleged perpetual motion machines, perpetual systems comprise series of standardized units for use together that motivate from nature’s regenerative cycles. Optimal deeper water wave energy converters are of one-design that is modular, provided in a range of sizes and quantity, self-supported, and quickly dis/connectable with other modules of an array. Failure and fixes of few among interchangeable units have negligible operational effects on connected module groups. Functional redundancy of floating and neutrally submerged arrays, the wave regenerating open spaces and sea lanes that allow module transport and servicing within and about their grids, loads distribution, and spread mooring lines that descend to minimal anchorage points are among basic factors premising efficient utilization of such widely distributed resource.

In developing elemental module basis, Figure 1 of the margin fifth slide depicts one floating buoy, affixed on its bottom with a vertical rod extending below, and an upwardly projecting tube mounted on a submerged buoy. Buoy and tube weight equally balances the saltwater mass displaced by enclosed air. They remain neutrally suspended at less disturbed strata. Ocean wave crests and troughs passage motivates displacement of the floating buoy and rod to reciprocate up and down inside the tube. Seen in Fig. 2, horizontal wave forces also push them away from the submerged portion and hamper retraction. Self-righting air to weight configuration improves if the submerged buoy is moved up, near tube top, and a weighted mass is secured on tube lower end (with weight subtracted from the original buoy mass). Buoy enclosed air attracts up and out, skyward. Gravity attracts the weight in, sinking down, eventually becoming dominant force if not actively counteracted. Fig. 3 shows diminished overturning moments but not balance. A more stable assembly is obtained if the weight extents are greater than the submerged sphere diameter. Like the spread stance of a defensive boxer taking a punch, and rotated for all directions, its form basically resembles an upward pointed cone. Using linear or tubular edge elements, a cone shape translates to nature’s most minimized volume enclosing building block like a tripod stand or pyramid- a regular tetrahedron defined by three upright angled tubes passing through a submerged buoyancy chamber and connected near an apex top. The bulk of components situate within and just beneath dynamic wave zones. Buoyancy engines introduce or evacuate seawater in chamber that adjusts mass to keep the structure neutrally stationed at depths between floating and sinking. Each tube houses a rod and floating buoy. Tubes spread out, below, and their lower ends terminate at the corners of a triangular base comprising three horizontal pipes. Optional damper sheet is mounted between pipes to operate as sea anchorage. The spread sheet strongly resists vertical and rotational water motions. Horizontal flows easily pass by its small side shape profile. Rounded and tubular slip-flow body forms also reduce lateral resistance and effects from slamming loads. Minimal sideway drag assists hydroficient station keeping or thru water planing during tow. Still, a single submerged, independently stabilized, self-righting tetrahedron and buoys are vertical structure that horizontal wave forces can offset. Diagrammatically shown at the OWEB page slides, its simple geometry is template for systematically cossembling or detaching similar tetrahedrons in groups.

Modules are serially quick-connectable with others in horizontal planar arrays. Corner-to-corner base attachment of three tetrahedra makes a triad. Not shown in the diagrams, horizontal pipes also link between their top apices. Triads are formed two different ways- “strong” A and “weak” B. The A triad is rigid close bound structure that outlines a nodal octahedron void. Nature in many forms uses such repeatable constructions. The eight equilateral triangular-sided octahedron was contemplated as module basis for a wave energy conversion system. Its bulkier shape is more cumbersome than the tetrahedron, difficult to assemble, and presents no advantage of close-pack shipping. Notably octahedron and higher frequency subdivisions, that approach spherical contours, do well apply to reinforcing inside large buoy structures. The “weak” B triad’s three tetrahedron corners join with only one connector. Apex pipes help to form rigid body mechanical closure but unconstrained tetrahedron majorities are subject to waves’ twisting forces. Such flexibility is useful at sea in process of connecting rigid A triad structures together or for spanning changes between different size modules. A triad majorities are preferred in practice. Each of their base corners join to mid-point base side of adjacent triads. In-water operations are reduced with just three base links that quick-connect three “tri-pods” having nine modules. Tri-pods in turn combine together using only six links joining 27 modules and forth. Like a spider weaving its cobweb, module group expansion this way resembles generally spiral-like radiating installation pattern around a core tri-pod. In same footprint, solely corner to corner triad connections decrease module quantity and enlarge intra-array open areas. Or, amenable to towing, rows of singly linked triad “strings” sidelong “zipper” connect together in ways similar to farming. Either spiral-like or linear side-linking of additional triads co-forms a regular octahedron-tetrahedron octet truss. The horizontal spaceframes are familiar for efficiently distributing loads and stiffening long span architectural roofs. Submerged in ocean, more favorably, module-to-module spread buoyancy connections enable space-frame extension to any desired area and edge contour. Neutral and positive buoyancy means support large range of truss, module, and buoy sizes that operate in all sea states. Deeper water wave energy converters deploy in sizes that dominantly match a site’s prevailing and maximum annual wave Height. Or different size modules are blended to work together in ratio to seasonal wave variation. Larger modules may at times produce more power despite having proportionally smaller stroke. Or large module movements may be limited in lower sea states where a smaller module is efficient. Power needs determine unit quantity. Self-stabilized modules are methodically joined or detached for adjusting array quantities to precisely match WEC farms electrical output with changing energy demands or environmental requirements. Horizontal extents of operating open web trusses should exceed a minimum of three wavelengths so that, like two columns simply supporting a beam, at least two similar wave segments always engage and level arrays. Underwater portions are suspended at depths permitting full reciprocation of buoys and shafts. Optional module damper sheets provide that only light-bottom, slack mooring is needed to keep an array at a particular station. The platforms greatly reduce mooring lines, anchor quantity, and other peripheral costs.

Along hydroface and near below, distributed group patterns of low profile, least displacement units actively mesh turbulent flows. Connected networks of spaced-apart modules directly convert to electricity, where they instantly occur, the multi-directional hydrokinetic energy in diffuse interference wave fields. Wave activity on buoys induces relative motion between driveshafts and remaining module portions that drive electrical generators. While also enabling wave generation through in open frame structures, a module’s reflected and missed waves actuate other proximate and down-wave modules’ buoys that, together with time, absorb all engaging wave trains and spot impulses. Contrasting more planar, platform-like floating means, rounded point absorber buoys quietly reduce slamming impact forces and off loads within and about tubular truss systems. Combined geometric synergy of connected arrays assists individual module station-keeping. Each module helps to reinforce its two, four, or six neighbors and they in turn other modules through in truss arrays. Over multiple wavelengths, array buoys’ combined up and down heaving and twisting forces tend to cancel out to average loads expressed in truss. Wave field concentrated forces are radially distributed and progressively diffused throughout the structural matrix. Slight flexibility of semi-rigid module connectors, like shaking a thick carpet, helps to dissipate system stress. Maximum point loads, friction, and wear take special case tolls without toil to modular ocean wave energy conversion systems. Buoys displacement mechanical advantages optimize power take-off. The assembly delimits individual buoy power range, for close matching electrical generator properties, while increasing sensitive response to smaller waves. Electrical output is additively combined, within each module housing, and interconnected with power cable to other modules. Power transmits among upper modules and to output terminals through shielded cable in structural quick-connect tubes. In the OWEB section, a Power Output Calculator helps to specify single module size and electrical generation. Scale variation of buoy size, module height, and truss dimensions may correspond to all sea states. Wider area, basic power result is multiple of WEC quantity less that portion from inter-array wave absorption and regeneration. Sensing and control systems develop to mediate internal WEC displacement pressures, WEC array power conditioning and storage, and environmental response. Modules are systematically quick-disconnected for servicing, swap-out, relocation, or reduction.


Ocean Wave Energy Converter Models

OWEC® 1 Wave Tank Test   Three OWEC® Ocean Wave Energy Converter working models were fabricated and demonstrated. Identical modules’ construct was based on specifications described in 1980 U.S. Patent 4,232,230. Scavenging parts from 1980 school degree project, and still allowed its machine shop access, each 29 inch (74 centimeter) height module comprises three polycarbonate tubes, 1.5 in (1.3 cm) OD Outer Dimension, arranged 120° degrees apart as edge elements of a tetrahedron. Each tube is inclined 35° from vertical and situated in non-intersecting trimetric relation with the other tubes. They secure near the apex through a coated round balsa wood block having appropriately angled plastic openings. Every tube contains a 23 inch (58.4 cm) length aluminum rod having 14 in (35.6 cm) reciprocation stroke. A pair of linear bearings are longitudinally spaced apart in tubes to support and guide rods. 8 in (20.3 cm) diameter spherical buoy, made of cellulose butyrate plastic and having 10 pound (4.54 kilogram) displacement, is affixed to a rod’s upper end.

Each of the tubes terminate in brackets securing them to an acrylic damper plate of equilateral triangular form. A 9 in (22.9 cm) diameter epoxy reinforced nylon spherical buoy is positioned to surround the tubes below the block. This buoyancy chamber houses electrical components and its air filled interior maintains neutral buoyancy of the assembly. Rubber infused fabric bellows sleeves form flexible airtight closure between each tube opening and the upper end of reciprocable rods. The rods carry 13 longitudinally spaced permanent magnets of a LEG linear electrical generator- the first and, for over 15 years, only wave powered LEG. The strong little ceramic ring magnets, each 0.72 in (18.3 millimeters) OD, 0.375 in (9.5 mm) ID Inner Dimension, 0.5 in (12.7 mm) H Height, are separated 0.5 in by slightly larger OD plastic spacers and stacked along a rod with like poles facing North to North and South to South. Repulsing magnetic lines of force radiate outward- perpendicular to the linear configuration reciprocation axis. In motion, changing magnetic forces influence the electrons in linear coil sets of 28 AWG copper wire. Stationary wire coil assemblies are closely wound around inert hard-coated paper roll, secured between the slide bearings in each tube, that has nominal air gap with magnets. The 4 inch (10.2 cm) length assemblies comprise two coil sets. Wire is wound one direction 225 turns in a space of 1.125 in (2.856 cm) OD, 0.875 in (2.223 cm) ID, and 0.5 in (1.27 cm) Height, carried straight span of 0.5 in crossing to become next similar coil wound 225 turns the opposite direction, and so repeated in one-half inch increments to make a connected set of four spaced-apart, counter-wound coils. Wire length is 73.8 foot (22.5 meter). Another identical coil set is interspersed within the voids of the first set, that together cover the entire length of paper tubes for a total of 147.6 ft (45 m) wire length. The electric AC alternating current leads of each coil set are joined to input terminals of a full wave rectifier bridge comprising unidirectionally conductive diodes- Archer 1N34A, germanium point contact, piv-75 volts, average rectified current-50mA. The rectified DC direct current electrical output of each rectifier is series connected with the five other sets of a module. They are further series connected between a single pair of module output terminals. These in turn, through module-to-module connecting wires carried in upper linking tubes, are additively combined in series with the other two like modules. The 18 coil sets total 1,328 ft (405 m) wire length- over one quarter mile. Accordingly, LEG electrical outputs of the three-module array connect to a power meter.

May, 1982 unidirectional wave tank tests observed mechanical and electrical operation of the three OWEC® Ocean Wave Energy Converter working models in controlled hydrodynamic conditions. A wall portion of the 8 ft (2.4m) x 100 ft (30 m) tank included a glass viewing window. For documentation purposes, water level was lowered to situate OWEC® modules’ range of motions in sight of visual recording equipment. Connected modules were placed near middle of the tank and flotationally suspended in water with the buoys partially submerged and the rest of the structure totally submerged. Up to 50 pounds (22.7 kg) weights were distributed, on lower damper plates, and adjusted to keep neutrally buoyant modules at working depth midway between buoy stroke extents. Resulting proximity of the plates with tank floor would unnaturally influence OWEC® operation tests. Attached slack line held the down-wave module array generally in position fronting observation equipment. At tank end a bottom hinged large paddle was controllably pulsated back and forth at varying angle stops and frequency. The wavemaker generated unidirectional water undulations from 1 inch (2.54 centimeter) to 5 in (12.7 cm) Height and 1 to 10 second Period proceeding along the tank length. Maximum height of engaging waves was 70% lower than structure design scale. Emulation of the H to P rule (x feet = x seconds), described in the Inception section, is unattainable with wave sizes below 1 foot.

As sinusoidal waves passed through, a shimmying motion was observed of modules because their horizontal extents did not exceed multiple wavelengths. Still, tubes, wire coils, and other generator parts were maintained relatively stationary by lower horizontal sheets that strongly dampened vertical and rotational motions. Due to placement at a depth of attenuated water particle movement, the sheets provided sea anchorage that also countered tendency of the structure to drift off station. Viewed from above, the arrangement self-aligned to oncoming unidirectional waves. Six of the point absorber buoys’ inclined reciprocation axes aimed 60 degrees away from the wavemaker and three buoys faced oncoming waves. These buoys’ axes situated so that wave crests first engaged upper end of their line of action. Quickly rising and dropping, they were less efficient than when reciprocating along a vertical axis because the rising stroke travel direction forces buoys against the direction of wave procession. A vertically reciprocable buoy, or other point absorber of relatively small dimensions, has a “capture width” of approximately one-sixth wavelength that power production further reduces. About one-half of a wavelength is captured by simultaneously absorbing both components of vertical buoyancy forces and extended “force-on” duration in wave crest processions. Capture width of remaining six buoys was expanded to near full capability. Their inclined reciprocation axes, rising from lower to upper positions along with crests, followed paths more aligned to horizontal wave direction. Buoyancy forces were engaged with waves for extended time so that a buoy reached near maximum stroke against energy conversion loads. A buoy’s inclined travel alignment is most effective within about 60 degrees to each side of wave direction, 120 degrees total, before sidelong or opposing waves counter advantage of its biased axis. Remaining buoys favorably engage same waves. From any direction 360 degrees around a circle, on average, wave capture is greater than for three vertically aligned buoy travel axes. Interpolating assigned efficiencies for various directions of effecting waves render different buoy capture widths: vertical buoy wave engagement over all wave directions- 17%, inclined buoy engagement with wave direction- 50%, offset 30 degrees from wave direction- 42%, offset 60 degrees- 35%, 90 degrees- 28%, 120 degrees- 21%, 150 degrees- 14%, 180 degrees rising against wave direction- 7%. Combined efficiency of three inclined reciprocation axis buoys, situated in trimetric relation, over all wave directions is 25% to 33%. The result nears twice the 17% value of vertical reciprocation axes. Unidirectional waves often dominate nearshore but are contrary to conditions for which OWEC® modules are intended. They are designed to have significantly enhanced operation offshore and in oceans’ deeper mixed seas having multi-directional interference waves. In such conditions all three of a module’s inclined generators operate toward 50%. There, also, seafloor influence on wave hydrodynamics-machine interactions are negligible or greatly diminished.

Following waves, each of a module’s independently floating buoys was partially submerged in crests until its gravity forces, from LEG linear electrical generator and shaft weight, were surpassed by displaced water’s buoyant lifting forces. Magnet portions of respective LEGs moved up through coils within tubes and generated electricity. Motion slowed and ceased at wave peaks, momentarily stopping electrical generation, until ensuing wave troughs lowered the buoy and LEG toward equilibrium restoration, in the gravity direction, and generated electricity as magnets passed through coils. Buoy and LEG downward momentum carried into next wave crest formations and again ceased energy production at stroke end before recovering buoyancy and repeating the cycle. Often a buoy’s reciprocation frequency was lower than wave frequency- typical action of most floating bodies heavier than a water bubble. The LEG linear electric generators' intermittent direct current electricity was additively combined with others in the array. Sum total generation provided continuous electrical power. Output was below capacity yet the apparatus functioned most as intended, proved the concept, and disclosed valuable considerations for OWEC® development. While promising, wave tank tests also revealed deficiencies.

Hinting at pneumatic or hydraulic wave energy converter topology, like a hand operated boat pump, expansion and contraction of the flexible bellows sleeves surrounding each movable shaft constricted airflow blocked by shaft and tube upper bearings. Suction and blowing pressures exerted resistance. In few downstroke instances the condition helped to opportunely cease and reverse buoy movement in tune with waves. In most cases the holding effect was negative attribute compared with such condition being purposed in pneumatic wave energy converters. Using buoy displacement for directly raising and lowering LEG linear electric generator parts amplified tendency of mismatch. Equipment weight and PTO power take-off loads diminished buoyancy and rising rate, before a buoy reached upper stroke limits, and horizontal wave procession moved crest peaks away from full engagement. The delay, from off-phase movement with ambient waves, repeatedly shortened or nullified generator reciprocation. Actuation delay also resulted from the floating spherical buoys’ high center of buoyancy and lack of tangential surface resistance to water particle motion. Flat bottom buoys conceivably would improve buoy wave response.

The linear electrical generator is direct energy converter but inherently inefficient. The design requires relatively large quantity of longitudinally spaced magnets in relation to the number of wire coils so that, at any instant during normal reciprocation, at least some magnets move from positions into and out of coils. At all times, 65% to 75% of magnetic materials are out of loop, disassociated from coils, and potentially exposed to seawater. Yet their total weight continually reduced available buoyancy forces for power generation. A reverse configuration, having stationary magnets and moving coils, was not tried for requiring commutator brushes and other fatiguing or complicated parts. The assembly did not provide kinetic energy storage and accumulation of successive strokes for increasing electrical continuity. Obstacles prohibited further LEG use but not decades later by others.

OWEC® 1 modules proof-of-concept experiments advanced TRL Technology Readiness Level stage to TRL 6 of 9. First in-water tests demonstrated modular, self-stabilized wave energy conversion. The apparatus functioned and measurable electrical energy was generated from wave motions. Small magnets have retained their strength over 45 years. The tests verified concept performance, exposed deficiencies, and informed OWEC® 2 development considerations. Set back to TRL 5, activity focused on overcoming the linear electrical generators’ intermittent output and delayed buoy actuation. Enhanced electrical output is obtained by relocating generator components. Sacrifice of any peak value is incomparable to advantages of efficient wave-to-wire power produced by continually rotating, controllable “flywheel effect”, electromechanical assemblies. Linear to rotary geometries have about 65% fewer magnets, one of the more expensive components, and several options are available for adapting customized commercial generators, derivatives, and other standard parts. Importantly, their weight is supported off of the wave-actuated buoy’s driveshaft and within the neutrally submerged buoyancy chamber. With use of light driveshafts and racks, most of a buoy’s force is applied to power generation. The inventor self-prosecuted revised design and drawings specified in 1987 US Patent.


OWEC® 2 Breadboard Award was granted following ten years of solicited and unsolicited applications to United States Departments of Commerce, Energy, the Interior, and the National Science Foundation- from which the Appropriate Technology Small Grants program was established 1977. Milling machine stayed off the day after USA’s 1980 election. Then US Department of Energy cut most renewable energy research and the Small Grants program was dismantled. In response, the SBIR Small Business Innovation Research program was established across multiple federal agencies, 1982- near the same time as OWEC® 1 wave tank tests. More funding applications were submitted during 1980’s, some straying into remotely connected topic areas, until quite exactly matching Department of Transportation’s 1989 Request For Proposals. The US Coast Guard specifically sought to use waves, as alternative to diesel fuel, for powering marine Aids to Navigation. Then receiving the first USA SBIR contract for wave energy conversion, research procedure and experiments evolved in common sense prescience to now well-defined technology readiness levels. The new OWEC® 2 linear-to-continuous-rotary design and integrated test simulations achieved between TRL 4 and 5 of 9. Core component analytical models and experimental development stages lead to prototype tests and sea trials, product specifications, and passage through MRL Manufacturing Readiness Levels.

Described in the Research section, commercial virtual modeling and analysis softwares were not widely available and so custom sub-programs were created. Energy conversion was emulated from random wave motivated sphere, hemisphere, and cylinder shaped buoys. System analysis examined translation from varying linear reciprocating motions stroke length, direction, and reversal frequency, through the drive train, to continuous rotary motion and electrical output. Results provided specification for smallest full-scale size “breadboard” construction that adds real hardware to the analytical part of the project. Loss factors are always difficult to assess despite more accurate softwares. Baseline operations of experimental breadboards can shed much light on problems. Integrated parts behavior and component sizing are more realistically understood and debugged. A 0.5 inch (12.7 millimeter) x 4 foot (1.22 meter) x 8 ft (2.44 m) wooden board and frame hinges onto a base that provides underside access to fasteners. One quarter cutout of the board surface accommodates a flush mounted 0.5 in (12.7 mm) x 2 ft (61 centimeter) x 4 ft (1.22 m) aluminum sheet. This metal portion has precisely located mounting holes for fastening and changing out experimental energy converting assembly components. Linear-rotary translator, transmission, and generator are affixed to the sheet that includes two clearance holes for alternate flywheel or armature locations.

A horizontally reciprocating 2 in (5 cm) OD, 1.75 in (4.44 cm) ID, 10 ft (3 m) length stainless steel 304 tubular driveshaft is supported by a Thomson 2 in (5 cm) ID open linear slide bearing mounted on the aluminum portion in close proximity to energy converting parts. A like bearing is mounted in steel guides, on the plywood portion, that permits adjustment of the distance between bearing load points on the driveshaft. Adjustability aids in determining optimal load distribution for minimizing driveshaft flexure over various scale simulations of module sizing. Tests were run with the bearings in one position. Five methods were considered for coaxially attaching a steel linear gear teeth rack to the round driveshaft. A sixth version is described in the Research section. The chosen method was to decrease rack weight by removing material from the solid back. A "U" shaped channel formed two self-aligning linear edge contact surfaces. The 6 ft (1.83 m) length rack is spot welded along driveshaft length that sustains its tubular cross section and structural integrity. Two wheel guide assemblies contact rack sides to keep its upright alignment. Located between linear bearings, the guides are precisely adjusted to prohibit rack rotation and rubbing contact within open bearing walls while having sufficient clearance for smooth reciprocation.

Adjustable height bearings are affixed to the breadboard’s aluminum portion on both sides perpendicular to the driveshaft/rack. The bearings allow height adjustment of a 0.73 in (18.5 mm) diameter captive axle. The rotatable axle, made of 41L40 steel and heat-treated to Class A hardness, has keyways and keys for carrying differently sized spur gears in non-binding, meshing engagement with the rack. Three interchangeable 0.75 in (18.5 mm) ID spur gears, having pitch circle diameters of 1.75 in (4.45 cm), 3.5 in (8.89 cm), and 5 in (12.7 cm), are swapped to compare the drive train’s linear to rotary motion conversion efficiencies. The size constraint permits changeout of various components with exception of 0.5 in (12.7 mm) diameter generator axles. They are connected inline to the drive axle with shear couplings. A Formsprag (now Dana) HPI-400 overrunning clutch is mounted on the axle end. Early tests found that factory provided grease lubrication increased resistance. Most was removed and replaced with oil.

Flywheel frames, each 13 in (33 cm) OD x 1.375 in (3.5 cm) ID x .25 in (6.35 mm) thickness steel, 8.5 pounds (3.85 kg), are affixed to respective clutch ends with fasteners. Flywheel incremental weights are mounted on frames. Concentrated loading and inertial relationships are compared for two types of flywheel weight sets. One set comprises weights shaped as half disks. Pairs of 13 in (33 cm) OD, 3.5 in (8.9 cm) ID, 0.175 in (4.45 mm) thick, 2.125 pounds (0.96 kg) co-form to a relatively solid flywheel. Another set is rim shaped, each 13 in (33 cm) OD, 8 in (20.3 cm) ID, 0.175 in (4.45 mm) thick, 1.375 pounds (0.62 kg). Utilization of means for varying input speed to an electrical generator facilitates determination of suitable gear ratios.

The outside of flywheel carries a hub affixed to the driveshaft of a variable speed ratio transmission. Planetary gears and harmonic drive strain wave gearing are specified in US Patent 4,672,222. Functionally interesting from the go kart and minibike industry, possibly apposite, the Comet Torq-A-Verter transmission was evaluated for its self-adjusting properties using variable centrifugal forces. Instead, inappropriately, the Numeritool T-32 Allspeed Drive #155 was selected. The transmission comprises dual v-belts connecting four spring-loaded variable pitch pulleys. With input from the flywheel and output to a generator, using clamp-type shaft connectors, the manually adjustable configuration provides fixed gear ratios ranging from 1:1 to 20:1. The selected test generator is a Superior Electric Slo-Syn synchronous stepping motor, type SS400-1122U, 72rpm @ 60hz, 120v, 1.1amp, 45 lb-in t torque. Slotted tombstone mounts permit transmission and generator height adjustment for maintaining axle alignment over the range of spur gear sizes.

The experiment was connected to a wave simulator servo system, mounted on the plywood portion, that controls driveshaft reciprocation length and frequency. Horizontal driveshaft attitude required means for simulating effective buoyancy and gravity forces of more upright configurations. A first servo concept would implement two springs, in series, acting on the driveshaft. One non-constant spring replicates a buoy under varying conditions of partial submergence and a constant spring models the weight of driveshaft and buoy. This method was rejected. Simulation of various driveshaft gravity forces were more simply replicated using 3, 5, and 10 pound (1.36, 2.27, 4.54 kilogram) weights that sling suspend from a 5 ft (1.52 m) high scaffold, by block and tackle, and connect to a driveshaft end. The drive servo system of a 3:1 reduction block and tackle configuration of rope is connected from the other driveshaft end to the post on a drive disk and motor. The quarter horsepower Minarik 130v synchronous stepper motor, with t of 270 lb-in @ 72 RPM, is vertically affixed to a steel plate on the breadboard. Its axle is perpendicularly mounted with a 15 in (38.1 cm) diameter horizontal steel disk having six threaded holes, each 1" (2.5 cm) apart in radial alignment from hub to rim, for carrying a post. Placement of the rope loop and post in a certain hole provides specific radius that translates drive disk rotation to sinusoidal motion and reciprocable driveshaft stroke lengths ranging from 1.5 ft (45.7 cm) to 5.5 ft (1.7 m) maximum. Reciprocation frequency is calibrated as a function of simulated wave period and manually adjusted with motor controls that allow speeds from 0-41.5 rpm. The wave simulator was designed to exert linear forces of 150 pounds (68 kilograms) and simulate buoy and shaft weights to 100 pounds (45.36 kg). Generator output is measured to variable resistance from several light bulb types.

Tests quickly revealed that the drive motor was underpowered. At the extreme settings, maximum driveshaft travel could not be sustained due to motor under sizing relative to the wave simulator’s 3:1 gear reduction torque. The shafts, bearings, flywheel, and generator assemblies wielded large forces on the system. In particular, the selected transmission was over-sized and exerted inordinate drive train resistance. Maximum driveshaft travel could not be sustained at extreme settings. The unloaded axle, downstream of the transmission and without generator attached, resulted in rotation speeds to 70 rpm but could achieve only 20 rpm when the generator was in line. In final runs, the transmission was eliminated to directly connect the flywheel to generator. Reduced loads marginally improved electrical production from 16-32 inch (41-81 cm) Height simulated waves, over 2 to 5 second Period, and other tests ranging to 6 ft (1.8 m) Height waves. Compiled operational data provides input power values for modifying the design program. Breadboard experiment “lessons learned” concluded that dead weight flywheels, though providing continuous unidirectional rotary motion from reciprocating motion, are energy wasteful. Any desired "flywheel effect", or system resistance, can be directly obtained from generator rotors and tunable coils. They precisely respond to input forces and can help to control buoy attitude.



Always drawing BC Before Computers, from crayon wall scribbles to more constrained expressions, at 17 years Foerd started measuring and drafting existing conditions of residential and commercial structures for an architecture firm. He taught drafting to high school classmates and for 10 years provided design, drafting, and consulting services for architectural construction, invention development for patent, and patent drawings. All design and technical drawings were hand drawn on large drafting tables. Fragile transparent sheets are ripped from “Canary Buff” yellow trace paper rolls and taped flat to table. Back and forth movement of wired in parallel rule, spanning from table side to side, provides horizontal drawing edge. Clear plastic 30 degree, 60°, 90° or 45°, 45°, 90° triangles are moved along the rule to provide vertical and common angle drawing edges. 45° to 90° adjustable triangle provides any angle. Circle drawing compasses, all manner of shape templates, and patience enable anything to be drawn. Against these tools frequently sharpened 2H hard graphite leads in a pencil holder, with a cultivated thumb-finger twirl, produce crisp, even lines. Overruns and mistakes are precisely removed by rubbing an eraser within various shaped openings of a thin steel erasing shield. Design evolution emerges at top refinements through transparencies’ thickening layers. Difficult problems soften the underlying pile and invite pencil lead puncture or tear that white glue restores. The final work up is transferred to smooth white paper, board or, preferably, underlays the final version drawing surface that is frosted texture Mylar plastic sheet. Pen and ink tools can make finest lines at great cost. Capillary action of tubular pin nibs, drawn across surface, delivers ink from a cartridge. Nib points vary in diameter from numbers above 0 to those below. 2x0 and 3x0 nibs work well and long for making relatively thick, thin lines. 4x0 (0.18 mm) and 5x0 (0.13 mm) nibs make very thin lines. These most expensive, delicate flowers are first to break- particularly on the paperboard drawing surfaces formerly required by the US Patent Office. They frustrate when requiring erasure. Redrawn ink bleeds into slightly damaged surface and ruins hours or days of work. Photostatic copies of pencil drawings on Mylar were submitted, in protest, that led to their acceptance as valid patent drawings.

Inset image shows operation of interconnected OWEC® modules. Complexity of this OWEB Ocean Wave Energy weB perspective drawing, for all of its anticipated erasures, required a Mylar work up sheet. Perspective setups comprise a horizon line- the line of sight to the person viewing the image. “Two point” perspectives mark a left and right point, along the horizon line, called “vanishing points”. To draw a cube with a corner facing the viewer, for example, a vertical line is drawn some height above and/or below the horizon line between the vanishing points. Light reference lines are drawn from each of its ends toward the points. Though triangles, their appearance is of a box that would go all the way to the horizon. Other vertical lines are drawn, some distance to each side of the first vertical corner line, until they intersect the vanishing lines and define back corners. More lines are drawn from the corners, across the back, to the vanishing points. The result is representation of a three dimensional object, a cube or rectangular solid, on a two dimensional surface. “Three point” perspectives have a third vanishing point, up high or down below the horizon line, that adds more realism to the cubic representation. The OWEB pencil on Mylar perspective has six vanishing points that represent four sided tetrahedrons, in a three dimensional environment, on a two dimensional surface. Such an image, today in the AD After Digital world, is relatively easily fabricated and modified with computers. “Old school” hand drafting tools still are sparingly used in drawing procedures with computer monitors. Now 2D two dimensional and 3D CAD computer aided drafting models are adapted to producing virtually realistic animations, force simulations, body stress analyses, magnetic flux studies, and solutions to many more design factors. With ability to incorporate diverse inputs, a product’s viability or failure can be accurately assessed before real world buildout. Developed programs integrate with CAM computer aided machining processes.


OWEC® Ocean Wave Energy Converter was invented during architecture school "Ocean Habitat" studio. Designs were developed for ocean research structures along hydroface or in the water column to sea floor. Water-ballasted bodies are variably positioned with electromechanical or chemical assistance. Some have diving and bottom walking ability. Power supply development included ocean wind though abandoned in favor of denser wave energy. Decision was made, 1978, to forego on or near shore location and primarily utilize offshore and deep ocean wave interaction with floating and neutrally suspended bodies. Such remote sites have consistently high energy density and vast areas provide wide planes of hydroface activity. Direct conversion of active interference wavescapes is achieved through horizontally melding open structures. Minimum systems of hydroficient units are quick connected to co-form octet octahedron-tetrahedron trusses. Unit neutral buoyancy accommodates module-to-module self-support for quantity distribution. Scale variation of truss size, module height, and buoy size may correspond to all range of wave conditions.

OWECO experimented with the first wave-driven linear electrical generators, rectifier designs, buoy shapes including resonantly tuned cylinders, and construction materials, patent issued 1980, and performed 1982 wave tank tests of three working models. OWEC® operation and electrical output elucidated design improvements that culminated in 1987 patent authored, drafted, and prosecuted by the inventor. Following a decade of grant applications, dry trials and analysis of full size linear-rotary generators were completed, 1989-90, during the first USA federal contract award for wave energy conversion. A team of five professional and academic contributors included mechanical, electrical, and ocean engineers. Small Business Innovation Research activity focused on using wave energy to operate US Coast Guard active signal AtoN Aids to Navigation. Tests rendered power points for refining a technology engineering program that virtually describes all ranges of energy input, module sizes, and electrical output. OWECO engineers developed computational fluid dynamic and structural analyses. Electrical control and power take-off are examined relating to large buoy dynamics. 2008 U.S. Patent 7,352,073 and 2014 U.S. Patent 8,810,056 resulted. Experiment and sea trials raise data accuracy. Then the verified program is a most important tool for system modeling, module specifications, manufacturing standards, and process control.

Detailed in the Development section, 1980 patent is a tetrahedron module. Independent wave driven buoy shafts move magnets up and down through coils in tubes. Counter-wound coil sets are interspersed between tube bearings. A second coil set is not shown (Development, Slide 2). Tube bearings provide sliding contact with spacers between like pole facing magnets. Lower damper plates provide sea anchor to stabilize buoyancy chamber and coils. Buoy wave reciprocation generates electricity. Output is rectified to direct current and additively combined between module generators and with quick-connect tubes to generators of other modules. Though linear generators very directly convert reciprocal motion, each reaches zero stage per half stroke. The design requires excessive magnetic material so that some magnets always correspond to coils during wave passage. An opposite arrangement renders the same result. Another inherent problem is direct support of magnet or coil weight with buoyancy force. Such attributes diminish efficiency. OWECO's four-year experience with linear generators evolved with translation of intermittent reciprocating motion to continuous rotary motion and supporting generators in neutrally buoyant housing.

1987 patent discloses reciprocating rack and counter rotary axle gear within buoyancy chambers. Clutch converts bi-directional motion to continuous unidirectional motion of flywheel, transmission, and generator. Gear pitch diameter effects rotations per stroke, torque, and flywheel effect. Force bias is toward upstroke buoyancy using relatively large flywheel generators. Separate, smaller flywheel generators operate from downstroke buoy and shaft material weight. While slightly less directly driven, primary advantages are sustained movement, fewer and more commercial parts, and neutrally supported generator weight is independent of buoyancy force. OWECO performed a U.S. Coast Guard contract under the Small Business Innovation Research program. A small full-scale breadboard experiment took input from a variable wave and buoy simulation motor. The power train included linear to rotary converter, adjustable mass flywheel, variable gear ratio transmission, generator configurations, and load. Mechanical simulation of wave properties and electrical output established data power points and scaling factors for descriptive computer models. Drive train resistance confirmed that operational simplicity is essential.

Since 2000, OWECO hosts international engineering interns working on several computational fluid dynamic and structural analyses. Forthcoming engineers will examine electromechanics related to large buoy dynamics. The buoy is first interface between hydroface and OWEC® units. Two general states exist when a wave-following buoy is partially submerged, when it is totally submerged, and whether it is traveling up or down. With respect to electrical generation and other loads, different conditions apply to upward buoyancy and downward gravity forces. An ideal buoy displaces maximum amount of water as quickly as possible while flowing through the water with least resistance. OWECO prior intuitive work with sphere, hemisphere, and modified cylinders confirmed that added mass from turbulence can exert substantial negative pressure. Beyond sphere, two buoys seem promising. Conical, and particularly, bi-conical spheroid shapes show remarkably improved flow efficiency.

The cone shape is adaptable to predominantly long period waves in which most buoy portions extend above hydroface. When near fully submerged, its considerable displacement enhances buoyancy force to compensate slower velocity and drag. Within design parameters, however, an asymmetric relation to reciprocation axis may at times exert large gyration loads on the driveshaft. The fish-like Tetras buoy eliminates twisting stress about the driveshaft due to its axial symmetry. This buoy is most effective near full submergence in active seas. Although buoyancy volume is less than the cone buoy, its reduced weight and efficient form flow enable quick reactions and faster velocity. The net force may be equal or greater than the cone while comprising fewer materials. Buoy strength to weight is further improved using composite thin shell walls reinforced with interior foam lining and balloon framing members.

In addition to hydrodynamics, OWEC® optimization relates to timely implementation in factory, overland transport, or waterborne vessel to accommodate greater storage quantity per delivery trip. The modular system permits high volume component manufacturing and deployment options. Large buoy and air chamber parts are shaped for close-pack nesting and methodically repetitive quick dis/assembly techniques. Another example is bayonet mount driveshaft racks using slip-fit connections. Module base connectors are made of space-saving nesting tubes that form strong corners when assembled. Lock pins provide two way edge or three way interior connections with other module bases. Mating tolerances allow adjustment of overall truss flexibility and force dispersion. Connectors are supplied with redundant security features and shock absorbers to dampen impact loads from downward shaft and buoy movement. Overtopping waves on buoys induce maximum downward forces but they are relatively low. Though shown as springs, a variety of resilient absorber materials may be implemented including entrapped seawater.

2008 patent includes above considerations and third direct drive generator design for increasing relative speed and power efficiency with substantially reduced materials. The configuration is symbiosis of our previous designs and improved components that integrate flywheel effect in both reciprocation directions. Heavier components activate from buoyant upstroke, lighter parts counter-rotate from downstroke buoy and driveshaft gravity, and still other parts are stationary. Total energy extraction is actively optimized by maintaining buoys near full submergence through all stages of passing waves. Also of note, a new gearbox has one protected interior water seal that eliminates prior shaft bellows and associated suction. Located near module apex, buoyancy chamber maintains neutral buoyancy and houses power generation and control equipment. Chamber walls are supported at non-vertical angles for directing some wave laminar flow toward buoys. Upper and lower portions are edge sealed and affixed to a chassis comprising gasketed top and bottom plates. Plates are conjoined by central core and tube elements forming a very strong non-intersecting tetrahedron. Air chamber composite wall strength is augmented with interior partitions separating ballast bladders from electrical generator equipment, buoyancy control pumps, and desiccant. Sensing controls activate pumps to adjust the amount of seawater in bladders thereby maintaining module working depth. Preferably, two-part buoyancy chambers are factory sealed and guaranteed.

2014 patent improvements include electrical generator and ballast designs, further integration of commercial components, and manufacture/deployment processes.


OWEB Schematic on One World Ocean

One World Island HVDC Electric Transmission on Dymaxion Map by


The 1954 Dymaxion Air Ocean World Map was chosen to plot OWEC® Ocean Wave Energy Converter networks. Conceived 1936 by R. Buckminster Fuller, this important representation should supersede Mercator projection maps, especially, in all classrooms. Fold-in World globe is an icosahedron of twenty equilateral triangular facets having just 5% distortion from spherical accuracy. Fold-out map configures two preferred ways- a One World Ocean, above, or One World Island, below. 1960's World Game workshops refined a unified HVDC high voltage electrical transmission grid, yellow lines, to efficiently smooth power distribution as the World turns. OWEB Ocean Wave Energy weBs may form new landfall HVDC power connections that obviate or augment cross-continent transmission.

Dymaxion Map - Google Earth - HVDC - OWEB Integration

OWEC® Module Size Count

Technology Growth Stages
(click to view)

Stage 1
East & West Coasts USA
Stage 2
Other Regions Stage 1
Stage 3
Minimum Global Grid-MPA's
Stage 4
Maximum Global Grid

(click to view)

GE OWEB Dymaxion Map- 7,500 Mile Altitude (click for larger view)

Partial Asia scheme concentrates on HVDC, gas, and bottom laid or suspended inter-OWEB lines. Smaller triangle networks are superposed to show most possible OWEC® deployment areas. In actual use, large quantity OWEC® fields are arranged within triangles to provide essentially "porous" OWEBs over several miles. Major shipping lanes and national waters are omitted from the grid to retain the oceans' great expanses. Minor shipping lanes and open areas maintain freedom of movement. Additional exclusion zones may include horse latitudes, MPA marine protected areas, Cetacea distributions, and breaching grounds. OWEB configurations can provide physical boundaries, to limit human endeavor about region margins, while also enhancing shading and some extent of biogrowth on its lattice-like structures and moorings. With careful implementation, including low operating noise, electrical shielding, and benign materials or coatings, such attributes can invigorate dead zones and health of adaptive habitat that counter present trends toward species overfishing and extinction.

One guiding principle is technology imprint in hitherto pristine region, or existing structures expansion, intrinsically changes the environment. During take-up of ocean wave energy conversion to electricity, fresh water, and hydrogen, care must be exercised to "leave clean trails" with least negative impact of tests, early deployments, and failures among the wide variety of proposed technologies. Some developers identified prime project sites, having consistently energetic waves and/or proximity to favorable venue, that have been widely obvious for long duration. Competing site claims, or rancor over duplicative support operations such as data collection, cable laying, or anchorage may drive up false cost, produce waste, and divert time from implementation. A type of hestorical debacle should not be repeated- by analogy, the construction of transcontinental railroad tracks closely passing opposite directions several miles to get additional contract payment. Appropriate development is instead embraced by a "nursery" approach for utilizing minimum number of early identified prime sites off a country's seaboards. The test beds can help manage technology verification, comparison, and monitoring. Government/industry participation, provision, or cost share of common support reduces assessment variables and improves standards development. Additionally, oversight would account equipment installation, monitoring, and recovery where, for example, hardware, mooring, power transmission line, etc. may be otherwise stranded debris due to developer insolvency. From such nurseries, successful (perhaps certified) technologies could be assured. The UK "Wave Hub", in concept public provision of common electrical socket to disparate private entities, approaches the required first steps for practically developing regional ocean resources. After some period, it is assumed successful technologies will break out from test beds and expand in other venue. At such time, results of the current dialogue regarding individual tract leases will have further progressed toward standard practice. To such extent as possible, some desirable venues may be near decommissioned oil and gas structures. In addition to utility for establishing reefs, as the Rigs to Reefs program, rig foundations can be modified to provide superb moorings.

GE OWEB 6-10 Day Wave Forcecast (click for animation)

Ocean waves are predictable ten days in advance of arrival at particular locations. OWEB world map helps manage data links between near real time wave energy reporting buoys and OWEC® electric power generation. As grids expand, OWEB telemetric devices report point-to-point hydroface and module conditions. In this manner, adaptive SCADA Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition functions develop as extensions of the Internet web. With working growth of real and virtual realms, the OWEB map becomes practical SCADA template for accurately monitoring deployment techniques and controlling OWEC® site configurations, weather and wave field mapping, electrical conditioning, and environmental factors. In 2014, US Department of Energy promoted open source development of such functions. Accurate correlation to resource equivalents of diverse interest may provide the electrical product of the number of modules required to power remote equipment or off-grid regions, purify water, electrolytically produce hydrogen and oxygen, and projections of fresh water supply, sea level management, and attendant hydrocarbon pollution abatement in a World water-based "hydrogen economy". US Vice President Al Gore, author of Earth in the Balance, 1992, then stated "a global energy network makes enormous sense if we are to meet global energy needs with a minimal impact on the world's environment. Such advances in long distance transmission may even make possible Buckminster Fuller's vision that Eastern and Western hemispheres be joined by cable to assist each other in managing peak energy demand, since the high daytime use in one hemisphere occurs at precisely the low night time consumption by the other". OWEB Ocean Wave Energy weB interconnections will manifest this illumination (also here) with minimal line loss.


Revolving world’s thermal sky streams and salty liquid ocean thermohaline flows blended in relatively regulated density gradations. Humanity experienced basically “Goldilocks” life conditions during most pre-industrial epochs. Our small, simpler, imprint negligibly effected quite mild and favorable global climate- not too cold, not too hot. From 1820 to 1840, The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain, the rest of Europe, and the United States scraped and pried open nature’s “black gold” of oil and coal to augment whale oil and town gas. Mining and railroad lines expanded. Beginning 1870’s, the steam powered Second Industrial Revolution, or Technological Revolution, brought continual production assembly lines using interchangeable parts. Materials and process manufacturing advanced in paper, rubber, iron, steel, machine tools, engines, pumps, and turbines. Global product shipping and distribution primarily organized between United Kingdom, Germany and the United States. France, the Netherlands, Italy, and Japan joined in and helped to spread telegraphy and telephony, electric, gas, water, and sewage lines along expanding rails and roads. Livingry machine making devolved, to World War I sulfur mustard gas killingry, when global human population neared 1.7 billion. After, more engines, pumps, and turbines powered increasing oil extraction and refinement to petroleum, other petrochemicals, and fertilizers most intended for livingry. Mass production drove skyscraping city grids and expanding mass transportation along rail lines and parkways drives between blooming towns. World War 2 motivated industrial surges and rapid post war growth. Global population was approximately 2.9 billion accompanying OWECO founder’s birth year. From OWECO 1978 start, when humanity numbered about 4.3 billion, beautiful Earth still now accommodates 8 billion. At more than 80 million per year, over one million people are added every 5 days- a net gain between birth and death of one person every 41 seconds. As today’s megacity superhighways scale to resembling tomorrow’s village footpaths, predictive models surmise that 10 to 11 billion, each with double today's protein needs, will inhabit Earth by 2050. As a result 2022 installed power demand of 15,000 GW gigawatt, predominantly in China, India, and USA, was anticipated to rise to at least 37,000 GW.

Liquid, gas, and solid fossil hydrocarbon combustion still provides the bulk of global power and transportation reliability. Carbons, in varying ratio of combination with hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen gases are natural basis of many materials and life building blocks. Joined in process with select other elements, they also cut in to nature's subtle dance. Biocompatible circuits transform down one way paths to incompatible transformation or permanent destruction. Swelling masses of 98.6° Fahrenheit (37° Celsius) people, and attendant "meaningful life activities", defer natural accountability to false economies of easy open-ended emissions. Some regions have exhibited extreme degradation from persistent stack and tailpipe excretions hanging in the still, 115° F (46° C) air. Truck, automotive, or motorcycle inspection stickers are cheaply obtained without inspector scrutiny. Industry contested effects of over one century burning, effluent from more than one billion automotive vehicles, manufacturing process, and improperly disposed plastic bits of limited use or trivial function consumables are evidenced throughout oft ill colored atmosphere, troposphere, and hydrosphere. Unidirectional flow, from extraction tailings and combustion to sky, ground, and sea is rejective to true cost of deleterious atmospheric and organic consequence.

Pichic Bay Beach at Lo So Shing, Lamma Island 2011- How deep?

Like wind cast plastic tarpaulin bits in autumn’s leaf fallen woods, inability to adequately sort and process even society’s debris remains problematic. China is largest plastics manufacturer and United States the largest plastics waste contributor. "Interests abroad" add ocean shipping’s toll with export of messy production methods and garbage to countries affording less stringent ecological standards. USA did not ratify the United Nations 2021 Basel Convention focused on stopping transnational hazardous waste shipments. In the modern “triangle trade”, that year, it transferred 800 million pounds (362,873,896 kg) of plastic waste, deemed hazardous materials, to Mexico, Malaysia, India, Vietnam, and other countries. Landfills and the Great Pacific garbage patch exemplify pollution and microplastics infusion. In like manner nuclear energy industries, including market application for clean air credit relating to greenhouse gas reduction, omit negative externalities of water use and irremediable waste seepage. Despite Fukushima, and more recent problems, nuclear expansion seemed emboldened as “all-of-the-above” strategies clung to failing wasteful principle. Philippine Department of Energy Secretary once stated, “nuclear energy is cheaper and more environment-friendly” and proposed $1 billion initial payment. Several factors deflate knee-jerk temptation. From “too cheap to meter” to “duck and cover”, plutonium or uranium enrichment and surface dispersal is fundamentally hazardous. Notions of fissile “waste” materials’ sustainable repose in subductive plates of Earth’s crust, mountains, caves, oceans, or aboard space bound vessels obviate objective risk assessment of imminent consequence. Sweeping under the rug to such "out of mind" places serves to increase science complexity. Several important factors become impossible to project and reliably monitor for specific locations. Working knowledge is insufficient of active global tectonic and removed resource cavitation patterns. Only apparent location for our direct thermonuclear exposure, between core and sun (2:15, best viewed full screen- also Ultra-HD sun 30:24, and coronal mass ejection 4:16), is where insulated by ground and atmosphere. Germany’s realization led to powering down all of its nuclear sector during 2023.

Ignoring true cost (including SCC- Social Cost of Carbon), largely allayed to future generations, environmental cleanup is accounted an economic contributor to Gross Domestic Product. Exploitation is brazenly demonstrated, during 2020’s, with craptocurrency “mining” of off peak energy that should be stored. Discharge from specific industrialized areas relatively pale or exceed averages and natural seafloor oil vents contribute to the mix. Yet humanity scrapes by, overall, “rolling roaches” on puffing stacks’ hacks and coughs of a carbon addiction that seemingly won't abate until petroleum’s dry reserves. Lifelong concern now widely documented, genocidal activity with chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons combustion, and other process by-product effluents, release over 2.57 million pounds CO2 carbon dioxide per second- the most since measurements began 1970. The abuse symptomatically contributes to atmospheric CO2 expansion that measurably chokes the biosphere. More of the Sun's radiative heat absorbs through atmosphere than reflects from it. Promotion of oxymoronic “clean coal” sin gas technology, pre-combustion, post-combustion, oxyfiring, and underground or deep-sea CO2 carbon dioxide storage seems prohibitively expensive. Large scale manufacturing and deployment heavily rely on direct air scrubbing and sequestration, similar to submarines and space craft technique, for validating appearance of zero CO2 emissions. Scrubbers comprising aluminum formate or lithium hydroxide monohydrate are highly corrosive and cause metabolic disturbances.

Relatively mild conditions of time-rated weather variability changed to manifest observable phenomena as quickly shifting temperate zones. At same time vanishing are portions of approximately 3 trillion shading trees and vegetation that naturally sequester CO2, produce oxygen, and transpire rain. In 1975 Earth hosted about 6 trillion trees. Of those more than half of tropical rainforests are slashed and burned at accelerating pace. Every day almost 2.5 to 3.45 million trees are cut. About 900 million trees are destroyed every year. Over 1 billion acres (404,685,642 hectares, 1,562,500 square miles) of forest are lost since 1990. 21 acre (8.5 hectare) to 150 acre (60.7 hectare) cuts have estimated destruction rate of roughly 2,400 trees per minute. Almost the size of Spain, nearly 124 million acres (50,181,020 hectares, 193,750 sq miles) of forest and plants were changed to new uses from 2015-2020. Global primary rainforest degradation or eradication expanded 12 percent from 2019 to 2020. Over 160,000 acres (64,750 hectares) vanish per day. Nearly 90% of South Asia forests are demolished. Global tropical rainforests absorb one third less carbon than during 1990’s. Function flipped from carbon sinks to carbon emitters. By 2021, with more than 20% of the Amazon rainforest removed, it was shown that from 2010-2019 the Brazil portion released about 20% more carbon into the atmosphere than it absorbed. 741,316,144 acres (300 million hectares, 1,158,306 square miles, 3 million square kilometers) were degraded during 2022. In April over 247,000 Amazon acres (100 hectares, 386 sq. miles) were destroyed. Escalating wildfires emitted 59 megatons of CO2. Yet a slight temperature reduction and decreased lightning strikes possibly were result of 2020-2022 La Niña cooling and human inactivity’s reduction of released atmospheric aerosols during the Coronavirus pandemic. Quietude revealed more animals and hope. Roadside litter, sadly much up in trees, irrationally but conceivably increased because fewer were looking. Only 5% to 6% plastic was recycled in USA. 2021 return to business, not as usual, primed instant emissions upticks exceeding previous CO2 levels. 2020’s 10% decline more than halved as emissions rose 6% globally. 36.3 billion tons, the highest recorded level of released CO2, helped to render Earth’s fifth warmest year. California, USA experienced continuing drought in its hottest summer on record. Air conditioning and product refrigeration exacerbate conditions. Despite ongoing pandemic, near full blown traffic din and overflights resumed 2022.

21 July 1983, the 11,444 ft (3,488 meter) elevation Vostok station recorded the coldest Antarctic ground level temperature of -128.6°F (-89.2°C) degrees. 10 August 2010, Earth’s coldest temperature recorded by satellite was -135.8°F (-93.2°C) on the ice surface near two East Antarctic Plateau mountain summits. The last global annual coldest temperature occurred 1911. Conversely, nearing Antarctica’s autumn on 18 March 2022, the Terra Nova coastal base air temperature was 44.6°F (7°C). At two miles (3.2 km) altitude, the Concordia station recorded 70°F (21.1°C) above average result of 10°F (-12.2°C). Record breaking warmth was 50 to 90 degrees above “normal”. Within the Arctic Circle, mean average temperature rose 3 degrees since 1971. Overall, the Arctic is 6 degrees (-14.4°C) warmer than average temperatures from 1979 to 2000. Some areas are more than 50°F (10°C) warmer. 2 June 2021, ground temperature reached 118°F (48°C) at Verkhojansk, Yakutia, Eastern Siberia. During 30 December 2021, Alaska recorded its warmest December day of 67°F (19°C). The Arctic warmed four times faster than the global rate during 2022. Simultaneous bipolar heatwaves, that were freakishly unusual, now time-compress toward regularity. Feedback coincides albedo of reflective white ice melt and increased exposure of darker, absorptive surfaces that accelerate effects of Sun’s warming. Permafrost destabilization, land subsidence, and heave from newly exposed soils release large amounts of carbon dioxide, other gases, and methane- a short-lived greenhouse gas more than 100 times the potency of CO2. Strong feedback loops lead to more wildfires and emissions. Earth is warmest in at least 6 centuries and records are continually broken. Since measurements began 1850, the hottest years occurred after 2000. 2011 was tied for the coolest of the previous 11 years and also tied for the tenth hottest. Unusually thin and low Arctic clouds persisted, through 2013, similar to CO2 as effective one-way heating filter. 2014 and 2015 were warmest years with 2016 becoming hotter. 2017 was second hottest year, despite reduction of ocean El Niño warming effects. Then 2019 became second hottest, to 2020, as Arctic fires burned 11,613,953 acres (4.7 million hectares) of Siberian land. These two years alone accounted for almost 50% of area fires over the past 38 years. 2020 to 2022 La Niña cooling did not keep 2021 from being recorded as one of seven warmest years. Earth’s hottest recorded day (so far) averaged 62.6°F (17°C) on 3 July 2023. By wide margin, 2014 through 2022 are Earth’s eight hottest years and set records for water heat content in 57% world’s oceans and Mediterranean Sea. Oceans that soak in 90% of global heat still provide 50% of Earth’s oxygen. Amplified “force on” thermal pressures coalesce, pushing bubble-like pockets, and at their margins form distinct and buffering “walls”. More frequent stalling produces feedback loops that amplify incidence, force, and duration of extreme localized storm weather and precipitation intensity. Rainfall increased 20% from 1920’s to 2020’s. Earth’s perspiration accelerates as water cycles juggle dynamics to assimilate melted former polar ice. Such forcings precede atmospheric dissolution leading to intolerably fast and wide force variation. More rapid change rate exemplifies Earth’s close proximity to the steep edge of intolerable living conditions. Some contention posits that only past emissions are most significant contributor. Each unanticipated event evokes “never seen before” bewilderment. Then degrees of uncertainty usurp required default presumption that leading edges of such “tipping points” are robustly indicated. Local skies still often reflect deep and light beautiful blues. Every conjecture inadequately describes toxic soups and cuts into available time to actively avoid, manage, or decrease runaway impacts.

Obviously, deep decarbonization remains mandatory. Yet earthward descending particulates, runoff, and spillage adsorbed and absorbed in the hydrologic cycle continue causing world around decline in water quality- over 30% for salt water and 50% for fresh water. Warming meltwaters flood wetland acreage and aquatic habitat, expand sediment flows, and cause adverse impacts on water purity. Rampant fresh water shortages are predicted by 2050. Within five decades, rising carbon dioxide levels, vegetation over-saturation, corresponding transpiration and nitrogen losses, degenerating oxygen production, and pollinating insect loss forced down crop nutrition yields. Declining soil quality endangers 25% extinction of all plants. 2023 analyses suggest that more than 40% of USA ecosystems and over 100 large forests have collapse risk. More than 50% of nearly 80 grassland types and over one third of plants and animals risk extinction. Freshwater habitats comprise over half of threatened amphibian, crayfish, mussel, and snail species. Even during relatively short-term study, estimations merit continuous revision as populations of more delicate organisms indicate accelerating debility. Prophetic 1990’s coal mine canary example: "All amphibian biologists are now convinced that something unusual and catastrophic is happening to amphibians. We also think the amphibians are telling us humans something has happened to the habitat we share with the frogs," stated Ron Heyer of the Smithsonian Institution. "In some sites we are actually witnessing the decline as we try to study it," said Gary Fellers, a research biologist with the U.S. Geological Survey. Fresh water input to oceans alters and depletes nutrients. Within specific regions, changing elements disrupt life cycles. Other factors include increased ultraviolet radiation, through the thinning ozone layer, that bleach coral and endocrine disrupting chemicals that cause deformities and interfere with reproduction. Acidification makes some phytoplankton, the ocean food chain base, shift from stable to sensitive. They exhibit photosynthetic deficiency and lower growth rate. Other diatoms can adapt, becoming more resilient to warming waters, and spread in monocultures.

After acknowledgement of anthropogenic contributors, in wider consensus, such “calling cards” of more frequent weather extremes and amplified hydrospheric processes are signals that command lasting solutions. Conservation, only, will not offset vital requirements. Horse blinders clinging status began change post nuclear events and accompanying the 2020’s Coronavirus pandemic. War ship and submarine displacement sprinkle hydroface rise and tension. From 4 October 19 Newsletter, “Resistance is friction that makes heat. Globally engineered, connected cooperation is the quickest, coolest way to simmer down.” As always, now more than ever, global stand down and cooperative effort need entirely devote to what Buckminster Fuller described as “livingry” in place of “killingry”. Space monitors and explorers inform of beautiful and powerful amazements, other worlds in wait, shared Earth dynamics experienced by all inhabitants, and devastations that we wrought. Through wire and satellite wireless now so entirely in place, sentient sentinels and each in the global community may easily communicate local conditions to the Internet commons. We know that our climate and weather are boundlessly connected together. Uncheck Google Earth “Borders” setting. USE United States of Earth blend in common quest to minimize border bashing, tropospheric and hydrospheric chemical permutations borne of human endeavor. United Nations, World Energy Council, and all need extend accountability across politico-geographic inefficiency. Immediate effacement to all life generations must surmount irresponsibility and manifest rapid improvements conveyed over wide basis. As natural elements, land, and water are compromised for temporary convenience, epochal change of use is required from thriftless dispersion of permanently depletable resources. In a severe version of the "Rock-paper-scissors" game, in which packaging is more valuable than product or formerly separable product components are bonded and unrecyclable, heads in the sand must stop wanton hydrocarbon extraction, combustion, and disposable flow of limited use consumer "goods". Examples:

Multi-Pack Disposable Razors/Handles
Plastic Candy Packages

Little Water, Little Bottles, Big Problem

Full screen viewing is recommended of still topical primers "Home" (2009) available in several languages, "Planet Ocean" (2012), and PBS or BBC television series, “Life from Above” (pay). Despite malaise, present capability imbues immediately deployable technologies to mitigate such ominous problems. Manufacturing operations need improve methods that reserve and recycle finite resources, principally, for supplying material value in beneficial or specialized application. A variety of non-disposable product components are most suitably fabricated with certain plastics. The pace accelerates in research and development of bio-mimicking materials and processes. As example, several years ago, industrial discovery of a repeating polylimonene carbonate polymer comprised a CO2 catalyst and limonene oxide produced from orange peel oils. Having characteristics of polystyrene, the material would possibly form elegant carbon dioxide sequestration application such as structural closed cell foam where required in marine renewable energy devices.

For numerous years, the IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change seeks to qualify time-rated environmental interactions and symptoms of those induced or influenced by anthropogenic human activity. IPCC workshops focus on methods to estimate past global rates of changing conditions used for projecting future trends. Indeed, rock-embedded marine fossils are at Atlas Mountains quite high elevations and Antarctic moss are revived after 1,500 years under ice. Assorted models use reference frames to apportion complicated calculations including solar radiation, global surface temperature/pressure, plant growth, carbon cycles, aerosols, salinity transport cycles, tectonic activity, Earth rotation, clouds, myriad factors as seasonal radiative forcing by oceanic whitecaps, and humanity’s imprint. Problems of uncertainty persist along with unfolding climate complexity. Comprehension of complex, understudied, and unperceived impacts requires interdisciplinary collaboration. As a technical reviewer, and during participation with the 2002 IPCC workshop, discouraging was unbalanced reporting and risk assessment technique controversy relating to minority opinion exclusion. Bias compromised objective consensus documents, or set of precautionary principles, despite the event’s collective knowledge resource. Discourse was limited concerning climate mediation and management solutions. BEN Benefit true cost models need equivalent or greater development that reflect technological solutions. In addition to carbon emissions reduction and elimination, systems adaptation is required to further integrate clean energy processes. Certain types of RE renewable energy devices can absorb variable weather forces- particularly Sun’s expressions through wind and water.

Evolving requirements must encompass water management. Persistent minority voice helped redirect IPCC in its 2007 AR4 Fourth Assessment to begin analyzing relatively realistic climate solution scenarios. This focus resulted in special reports, “Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation” and “Renewable Energy and Climate Change Mitigation”. The 2013-14 AR5 Fifth Assessment Working Groups examined climate change physical science basis; impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability; transformation and changes in systems- avoided damages; and mitigation of climate change via sustainable development. Phased programs of afforestation are possible. Rows of mechanization’s monoculture fields suggest all other inefficiency. Such practice does not replicate naturally symbiotic ecosystems and arguably only delays biomass carbon release. Carbon offset conundrums, often used to enable business as usual, for example pit required actions against agricultural provision to feed growing populations. Insufficient land is available, for meeting overreaching pledges, that also would not encroach the ways of indigenous peoples. Conflicting with present trends of land use, widespread reforestation and vegetation regions need cover very large areas. But young forests are very different from old forests. Indigenous sharing of knowledge, participation, and monitoring of nature-inspired matter mixing can help to restore diversity that maintains soil and groundwater quality.

The IPCC AR6 Sixth Assessment Synthesis Report, released throughout 2021-2022, included subtopics Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis, April 2021; Mitigation of Climate Change, July 2021; Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, October 2021; and Synthesis Report 2022. CAT catastrophe risk analysis models began to illustrate truer costs of SLR sea level rise, tighter risk assessments of coastal structures, and higher premium flood insurance offsets. Chapter 10 addressed technology decarbonization and refueling infrastructure for electric and HFC hydrogen fuel cell transport. National economies tighten environmental policy, regulate pricing, and increase RE renewable energy adaptation. Land-based solar and wind energy installations are more widely distributed. Grid intermittency was portended in proportion to RE renewable energy integration. Indeed broken gearboxes and promises stalled half of local wind turbines exceeding one year. Transition fits and starts grab headline fodder. Intervening times unleash global reckoning. Increasing RE technology efficiency and quantity reduce unit service cost. Other wind turbines spin, or solar panels absorb, as even more redundant RE systems come on line. Conversely, Germany wind overage could not be accommodated on neighbor networks. Charge to the top is measured various ways. Importantly, countries where needed most race to lead the way. China and India boosted the pace of RE take-up throughout 2012. India’s 38 GW installed wind power generation was then fourth largest in the world. Russia, USA, and Brazil lagged behind followed by Germany, Canada, and Japan. Italy and France rounded out the top ten. Growth of Spain, Portugal, and globally dispersed spot arrays attribute development to improved efficiencies of power control, energy storage, transmission, grid connections, and distribution. During 2019, China planned major emissions reductions by 2030, net zero emissions by 2060, and substantially raised solar, wind, hydro, and geothermal installed capacity to over 758 GW gigawatts. By September 2019, USA wind installed capacity exceeded that of nuclear. 2020, global land-based solar and wind energy capacity surpassed coal. Brazil outpaced India throughout 2021 to take third place spot with 160 GW new capacity. That year Germany generated 138 GW, Japan 112 GW, Canada 103 GW, France 60 GW, Italy 57 GW, and Russia 56 GW renewable energy. During 2022, wind surpassed coal as USA’s second largest energy source, Australia renewable energy grew ten times faster than the global average, and China’s extraordinary world leading pace continued to over 1 Terawatt- 1,020 to 1,200 GW. It’s investment in renewable energy is so vigorous to account for over 40% of total globally installed capacity. During 2023, China’s MinYang company announced manufacture of largest offshore wind turbines. One blade measures the length of nine football fields. China is also the global market leader in hydropower, electric vehicles, and bioenergy for electricity and heat. USA moved from third to distant second place with 325 to 360 GW capacity. Having much mineral resource, level plains, and widely distributed rural power needs, India became third largest RE producer with investment in decentralized solar and wind technologies, control topologies, and existing or new utilities intelligent grids. Through favorable financing, under the 12th Five-Year Plan, about 30 GW new capacity was added to reach 89 GW by 2020. 2021 and 2022 surge achieved between 147 and 166 GW- 40% of installed capacity. 175 GW is soon in place. 500 GW renewable energy is expected by 2030- upgraded from previous estimate of 191 GW. Now 680 GW globally installed wind energy capacity is estimated by 2027.

Small-scale successes lead rapid buildout of quantity field arrays located nearer to expanding population zones and organically important areas. Bloomberg reports that “87 nations generate at least 5% electricity from wind and solar”. Coinciding adaptation of renewable energy sources, enduring pathways need be structured to incorporate holistic systems integration, or augmentation, with minimal environmental impact. A question of land use arises- not just about consents- but of nature’s significance. To address such concern, several governments constituted offshore renewable energy steering committees to responsibly develop regional assets. Rhode Island is first state in USA to deploy offshore wind turbines. Its ocean Special Area Management Plan supports marine spatial planning that influences models for other regions. Some areas of India, for example, were identified for locating wind farms in shallow waters 12.5 miles (20km) from land. Siting the farms near existing oil and gas infrastructure could help to reduce cost. Now steady stronger winds invite bottom-mounted, very tall, mono-towers that support larger 728 foot (222 meter) diameter turbine rotors comprising 354 foot (108 meter) length blades. Environmental and visual presence of serially embedded OSW offshore wind structures are being questioned. Some well-intended works, particularly constructions near land/water interface, can have negative impact. Onshore and nearshore littoral zones comprise biodiverse processes that are best left unperturbed. Technological approach requires monitored and controlled interaction with ocean environs. Large-scale, bottom fixed, nearshore wind farms also are hampered by arising public contention for naturally clear horizon. Views of vertical elements, before the “horizontal” hydroface realm, to most form on their function. Cooling and puffing stacks, transmission towers, turbine blades, and sailboat masts induce varying opinion of comport. Blade sweep, wake effect, 10% underwater tower harmonic vibration, noise, draped cable electromagnetic fields, seafloor foundations, scouring and ablation, and sedimentation are among measurable impacts to avian, mammalian, pelagic, and benthopelagic species. Environmental assessments, life distribution analyses, and most developers’ innate concerns point industry out from fixed bottom wind sites to deeper floating wind platforms- OWECO’s first MRE marine renewable energy activity, 1978. More viable opportunity for minimized perturbation lies with careful implementation of deeper ocean commons. There, spread farm arrays reduce wake effect. Floating mono-towers support larger rotors, powerhouse quarters, and electric transfer to seafloor substation export cables. Structure blade clearance must extend sufficient height, above the highest wave, frequently requiring additional cost to provide substantial submerged counterweight. Still, USA’s Inflation Reduction Act, Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act, and “Floating Offshore Wind Shot” initiative aims to deploy 15 GW by 2035. New Jersey has a target of 11 GW by 2040 and California seeks to have 25 GW floating wind in place by 2045. Four basic stabilizer types connect tall mono-towers to seafloor anchors: 3-way slack moored barge; taut moored tower offset tripod semi-submersible; spar; or 3-way tension leg platform. Offset tripod type is becoming standard during 2020’s. Vertically buoyant or wide floating structures are of increasing proportions to counterbalance large rotor overturning moments and waves. Upper limit crosses when costs of support structures and displaced water exceed generation equipment value. Rotor sweep, wind wake, vibration, and noise are among measurable wind conversion impacts to avian, mammalian, pelagic, and benthopelagic species. Dual-use, more squat designs incorporate marine current flow converters. Active solar energy systems were nascent and remain inappropriate for deeper water, utility-scale deployment. Co-location of MHK marine hydrokinetic energy converters affords further synergy. Low profile MHK devices can assist ocean structures stabilization while also reducing wave loads.

OWEC® Ocean Wave Energy Converter is intended for offshore and deep ocean application. Impacts of technology placement, whether OWEC® systems or other, may comprise negative or beneficial attributes. In example of wide scale submerged equipment deployment, prudence considers barnacle and seaweed encrustation that engender habitat change, marine life and avian redistribution, upper layers thermal turnover, aero hydration, and other significant factors. Marine hydrokinetic technology end-of-life issues, that also plague solar and wind renewable energy components, need further refinement. Yet immediate participation with managing recyclable ocean water fuel is most crucial for sustentation.


Large portions of Earth’s surface dynamics express through water. Absorbing 90% global heating, oceans are like a massive kinetic liquid and solid ice storage battery of potential energy. Desert mountain marine fossils obviously inform of cyclic hydrosphere’s breathing magnitude. Antarctic-Arctic pulsations are self-regulating for millennia. Over thousands of years Antarctica sea ice minimum extent, normally in March, coincides Arctic sea ice annual maximum. South’s maximum extent, usually in September, coincides North’s sea ice minimum. Humanity’s limited reverence, conscious ignorance, and supercharging effect to nature’s pace soak this reflecting blue hydrogen and oxygen reservoir of continually moving salt waters. Carbon coughing phlegm and heat injections pile-on ocean ecosystems, devastate marine life, and produce dead zones. Fresh water sources are rare, comprising 2.5% known water. 0.3% of that is surface liquid. Antarctica comprises 90% of Earth’s fresh water ice and almost 70% of its fresh water. Greenland’s ice contains 20% global fresh water. Melting polar ice mixes faster into the 97.5% that is salt water. Our extraction of groundwater, increasing subsidence that sinks cavitating land, sewage overflow, nutrient input, and chemical spills alter seawater composition, density, temperature, and location of coastlines. Most serious is the quickening change rate of elevating sea levels that impact coasts, islands, and shipping. Now, the pace of thermal expansion and land ice deposition into the sea certainly change species distribution and elevate global hydroface. Symptoms more quickly manifest and loom. During 2021 “robust acceleration” of anthropogenic human ocean heat contributions surpassed dynamic topography and warming waters’ background thermal expansion to became dominant driver of global rising seas. Faster water evaporation is insufficient to mediate hydroface rise.

Melting displacement of at least 14,000 square miles (225,531 km) per year land ice deposition into the sea, in addition to large ice shelf calving, accelerates. Arctic sea ice surface area lost almost 13 percent every decade since 1979. Other estimates include sea ice volume loss of 75% between 1983 and 2023. Beginning 2013, Greenland warms three to four times faster, than elsewhere, and lost about 4,700 billion tons of ice from 2002 to 2022. Its glaciers retreat seven times quicker than during late 1990’s accompanying longer melt seasons. As larger ocean swells roll in, feedback hastens sea ice and ice shelves disintegration to record volumes. Possibly all Arctic sea ice cover will be gone by 2100. Intumescence of glacial isostatic rebound destabilizes and expands formerly compressed land that further displaces water. Bearing repeat from the Climate section, 2014, at Antarctica’s Signy Island, cryptobiotic moss revived after 1,500 years under ice. Exposed ground, darker and mushier than reflective ice, absorbs Sun’s influence that continually amplifies melting and more rapid seaward flows. Less dense fresh water stratifies atop seawater, like a lid, and lowers ocean absorption of carbon dioxide. Simultaneously, like a kettle coming to boil, warming of ocean upper strata expands water volume and motions. Widening temperature differential between upper and lower layers accelerates currents that alter stratified thermohaline circulation patterns. The ACC Antarctic Circumpolar Current, unimpeded by land, presently exhibits more rapid flow analogous to brightening embers before fire’s extinguishment. Now the AMOC Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation seems comparatively less effected by Arctic fresh water influx. Then mixing of differential temperatures between upper and lower layers of the “conveyor belt”, that brings cold, fresher polar waters low toward the equator and displaces upper warmer waters, conversely dissolves to average warmer water column temperatures. Slower currents ramble in oceans’ enlarging volume as thermal expansion resumes its major contribution to rising seas. Water must go somewhere. Hydrological indicators mount with increases in frequency of intensifying sea storms, 20 percent more rainfall since 1920’s, and seawaters salinity gradient patches blending fresh water formerly bound in land-situated ice.

HR hydroface rise impacts arrive sooner than many expected. HR elevated 224.3 million square miles (361 million square kilometers) of global seas an average of 2.36 inches (6 centimeters) during 19th century, 7.87 in (20 cm) from 1880’s to 1992, 2.4 in (6 cm)- teacup height- from 1992 to 2014, and in 2017 accelerated rising over 3 inches (8 cm). Other data points to 9.37 in (23.8 cm) rise since 1870: 1.69 in (4.3 cm) from 1870-1924, at 0.03 in (0.8 mm)/year; 5 in (12.7 cm) from 1925-1992, at 0.07 in (1.9 mm) per year; plus 2.67 in (6.8 cm) from 1992-2017, at 0.118 in (3.1 mm)/year. 20th century hydroface rise is 7.87 in (20 cm). HR is accelerating. 2020’s average global HR overflowed coffee mug height above 1800’s mark. 2021 hydroface rise rate doubled world around, since 2006, to an average annual amount of 0.3 inches (7.6 mm). Ramping polar ice melt is predicted to produce exponentially higher sea levels. More than 15 inches (38 cm) HR is expected by 2050 under “Intermediate” conditions. “Intermediate-high” estimates 18 inches (45.7 cm). Past studies posited the Arctic would add 3 to 5 inches (7.6 to 12.7 cm) to global sea levels by 2100. Revised assessments range from 4 to 8.2 feet (1.2 to 2.5 meter). From the Arctic, alone, were attributed 1 foot rise from thermal expansion, 1 ft from glacial dissolution, and 1 ft from glacial cracks. Total Arctic melt adds more than 24 ft (7.3 m). Antarctic land ice melt could raise global hydroface a minimum of 8 to 10 feet (2.4 to 3 meters) or more. Some anticipate 16 ft (5 m) rise if just the West Antarctic Ice Sheet melted. Predictions range from 5 feet (1.5 m) to 20 feet (6.1 m) above normal hydroface that is expected after 2100. An estimate of 4 ft (1.2 m) HR by 2300 seems contextually low. Antarctica ice sheet averages about 1 mile (1.6 kilometers) thickness. Air exposed portions if melted contain enough water to raise global seas about 160 to 200 feet (49 to 61 meters). Long term, 5,000 year HR projection is 170 ft (51.8 m) to 224 ft (68.3 m) rise if all of Antarctica’s ice melted. Other estimates are 183 feet (55.8 m) and 212 feet (64.6 m) total HR if both poles melted. Water trickles and gushes. Not all crevices are accounted. “High accuracy” satellite instrumentation often misidentified buildings and treetops as land that resulted in 10 ft (3 m) error. The range of certainty continues flux during increasingly anomalous feedback trends.

Ocean water intrusion is most imminently severe of climate threats. Like “canaries in coal mines”, coastal regions and islands signal first impacts as elevating water levels inundate low lying areas. Almost 40% USA and over 50% global populations live near coastlines. Without intervention, now hydroface rise moves us up, back, and away from diminishing islands and eroding land. Symptomatic response has been to raise or raze shoreside infrastructure or to enforce them with new coastal defensives. One researcher's suggestion to "build seawalls" seems Band-Aid basic and several ports installed wind turbines on them. Next apparent are OWC breakwaters that convert wave batter. As with land and shore-sited wind parks, need contends life quality. NIMBY “not in my back yard” hard barriers only deflect water to unhardened neighbor. So-called “living seawalls” comprise vegetative mat materials as coconut or paper fibers that more closely simulate marsh characteristics. Spongy surfaces attract bedding oysters and variety of life. Other geo-engineering proposals are relatively fantastic or expensive. Time passed conscious ignorance, obfuscation of anthropogenic or natural causation, children’s questions, and models that fail to link fuel type with pollution and hydroface rise. Directly interfering required actions, now underway in the renewable energy, transportation, and energy storage transition, remediation deadline is pushed to 2050 as commercial oil drilling leases expanded into new regions of the warming Arctic Ocean. Interim steps to promote cellulosic ethanol and biodiesels have delayed focus on water management. Water use has also been most frequent omission of the 2020’s electric battery-hydrogen fuel cell energy storage debate. Now whispers find louder voice for honest water accountability. It is second most crucial element, after air, that binds enduring life climate. Evidence mounts of quickening pace and epochal evolution toward our wide use of water-based energy carriers.

Key elements for deep decarbonization come from the amplifying energy in oceans. Increasing storm intensity and water movement are potent assets. In addition to providing both carbon emissions reduction and sequestration, certain types of renewable energy devices can dampen anomalous weather forces- particularly expressed through powerful water. Marine hydrokinetic energy devices, that absorb excess forces to generate electricity, are also frontline to management of the enlarging “surplus” seawater resource. The aqueous portion of dire thermal dilemma only and elegantly resolves when ocean water is sequestered for use as purified freshwater supply and clean, recyclable fuel. Global true value begins accounting practical availability of renewable hydrogen and oxygen gases produced from seawater. 1970's notions pondered that lower sea levels would result from large-scale ocean water gasification. Mostly submerged wave energy converters’ minimal systems technology displaces insufficient water to maintain sea levels. Purposeful enlargement of technology displacement is impractical for attaining equilibrium. Hydroface rise was less perceptible, along with measurement accuracy, yet early 1980’s “dumber” technology alluded to impending acceleration. Small-entities’ point sensing buoys, transmitters, calculators, and past conditions report subscriptions initiated todays’ 16 day advance data projections of air-ocean dynamics. 35 oil and gas majors were informed of renewable hydrogen production requirements during 1983. By 1987 was optimistically perceived that major climate change predicament, the supplemental waters of rising seas, are actually "gift" for deriving gases from liquid.

Sea level stabilization technologies were always available, now quickly improving, and many elements of a holistic, globally connected energy infrastructure are in place. HR = H2O. In the "True Blue H2" Economy, the apparent “problem” of hydroface rise in actuality renders surplus seawater potential for large-scale purification and electrolysis- an elementary process that uses direct current electricity to separate liquid water to hydrogen gas. This true blue H2 source also liberates oxygen gas. Similar in function to aquarium aerators, specialty marine hydrokinetic devices pump down oxygen, through “bubbler tubes”, that helps to revigorate ocean dead zones. MHK powered reverse flow oxidation pumps assist in removing bacteria, brine, and possibly excess carbon dioxide from ocean water. Implementing scalable involvement with renewably powered seawater desalination, electrolysis, and raised off-site or land based hydrogen gas utility contributes to HF hydroface fall. Process management helps to maintain stable HL hydroface levels.


Layout scheme for the repurposed Brayton Point   Somerset, MA, USA   thermal plant
Missing: hydrogen storage Rendering credit: Anbaric

Conventional land power plants, transfer stations, and connected transmission lines simply resemble a series of bow ties, on electrical grid maps, centered from their point source generating nodes that fan out to widely dispersed loads. Electric plants’ coal, petroleum, and natural gas finite reserves for too long maintain grid parity. Reliance on nuclear power, some types of pumped hydro, compressed air impoundments, or merchant storage markets render their own natural dilemmas. From a school professor’s 1978 inference, before life-altering carbon monoxide absorption, OWECO founder proposed ocean wave powered electricity and hydrogen utilization, described in 1979 paper, and specified in 1980 US Patent. We can even drink car exhaust instead of dying from it.

Outlined in the Climate section, growth of VRE variable renewable energy continues unabated through rolling pandemics. More remote locations, even areas having marginal resources, adapt VRE equipment into their communities. As more island mode renewable energy farm microgrids aggregate online, the intermittent bumps of local VRE electrical generation can additively combine and smooth output to attain rated power thresholds. Ramp-up, step-down agility of upgraded super grids promotes balanced flows of VRE dispatchable power. Regionally overlapping nodes further instill redundant grid networks that deeply mediate energy flux from our time-variant local wake cycles. Bi-directional HVDC high voltage direct current lines and substation converters supplant alternating current along main corridors and rail lines. HVDC architecture enables long distance electric transmission from remote renewables locations to where global majority live near coasts. Still, as with all autonomous or grid connected VRE sources, individual electrical generators always respond to varying loads. At times of little local energy or overproduction that is shed through open circuits, electrons are not easily distributed among neighbor power grid networks. Energy storage, Storage, STORAGE, and power delivery management are key elements that facilitate electrical fluctuations. These essential components levelize baseload capacity for transmission from variable energy sources and changing distributed demands. To maintain grid reliability through regional sleep-wake cycles, fuels and electricity are collected when generation exceeds demand and released from long duration storage when renewable energy is slack. Battery storage presently dominates renewables stationary, transportation, and mobile power applications. Along with more HVDC high voltage direct current transmission lines, dense battery backup banks replace dusty piles and rusting holds in repurposed power plant yards. Conveniently packaged, wet energy storage packets seem conducive to broad adaptation and are becoming substantially in place. 27 April 2019, 10 miles (16 km) from OWECO at Somerset, Massachusetts and shown above, the Brayton Point thermal electric cooling towers and stacks were imploded to make way for offshore wind component manufacturing and deployment operations. The facility would provide an HVDC converter station and grid connection, battery storage, and an energy education center. The exemplary scheme, emblematic for global transitional activity, glares absence of H2 hydrogen - O oxygen production and stationary storage facilities. March 2021, by casualty of delay, the plant differed from the plan. It is in play but scrap metal, salt, and other piles dominate a site diverted by financial politics.

Overall, electric transportation grows over road, rail, and seas. Electric airplanes are demonstrated. Sector coupled networks of BEV battery electric vehicle quick charge stations infer ground transportation’s less carbonized future. Charge times range from overnight to about one-half hour, and quickening, but infrastructure is critical to overcoming range anxiety. China had 1.15 million public charging posts and almost 1 million other operating stations. As amazing lower estimate is about 1.8 million locations. USA plans to install 500,000 charging stations. Its DoE Department of Energy “Long Duration Storage Shot” funds battery and grid-scale storage systems. Large scale vehicle-to-grid aggregation assists flexible demand response and grid balancing. The DoE suggests US battery production capacity will grow from 2021’s 55 Gigawatt-hours per year to almost 1,000 GWh/year by 2030. Ignoring “clean diesel” allure for midsize and heavy duty vehicles, during 2019, eight USA states agreed to only utilize heavy duty carriage having zero emissions. Global manufacturers produce fleets of smaller, swappable battery powered cars, delivery trucks, and heavy-duty electric trucks. Over 25 manufacturers offered more than 55 BEV automobile models in USA during 2020’s. 2022, Fully charged car driving range was about 300 miles (483 km) and 190 miles (306 km) for trucks. The 2022 Lucid Air Dream Edition Range reportedly charged to 300 miles in 22 minutes. Its 933 horsepower travel 520 miles (837 km) maximum range when fully charged. Toyota will introduce new lithium-ion BEV models, by 2026, having 497 miles (800 km) driving range. GM General Motors, LG Chem, and others manufacture large format pouch cells. GM anticipated 500-600 mile (805-966 km) driving range between charges. Mercedes Vision EQXX has more than 620 mile (1,000 km) range. Greater Bay Technology’s thermally managed Phoenix Cell charges in 6 minutes, delivers more than 620 mile (1,000 km) range, and is unaffected by weather. Volkswagen funded Gotion’s LMFP lithium manganese iron phosphate battery has equivalent range and does not use rare earth cobalt or nickel. BMW 1 Ventures partially funded ONE Our Next Energy manufacturer’s proof-of-concept battery. Lithium-ferro-phosphate construction also obviates cobalt. It provides single charge range over 730 miles (1,175 km) and tested to over 880 miles (1,416 km). Pre-lithiated silicon anodes can fast-charge lithium-ion cells to 80% in 10 minutes. They have 50% more energy density and five times more power than conventional lithium-ion batteries. Porsche predicts that by using solid high density electrolytes, its silicon anodes will enable 15 minute charging time and 800 mile (1,287 km) range. Aptera Motors specialty solar electric car has 1,000 miles (1,609 km) range per charge.

Beyond lead acid, silver oxide, and alkaline, batteries comprise valuable combinations of manganese and nickel, with electrolyte and zeolite additives. They may also contain aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lithium, wet or dry nickel metal hydride, silver vanadium oxide, or zinc. Some lithium-ion battery cathodes use lithium cobalt oxide, lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide, lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide, lithium iron phosphate, or other materials absent of cobalt. Metal chelates are explored as replacement for vanadium-ion. With exception of zinc-chlorine compositions, variety of redox flow batteries tend to have low operating current density or inefficient cold charging. Their toxicity may reduce with redox-active organic quinones compounds from plants, fungi, and bacteria. Earth's crust contains approximately 0.004% available lithium. 5.9 million tons of it uncovered in India’s Jammu and Kashmir region during 2023. Some Africa nations opened accessibility to China’s lithium extraction desire. In North America, California’s evaporating Salton Sea is currently 50% saltier than oceans. It’s large but finite amounts of lithium lay in deep, geothermal brine. “Closed loop” extraction uses renewable energy generated steam to pump out hot, salty water. 600,000 tons of lithium can be produced annually. Responsible materials processing has been difficult. Variety of packaging and evolving chemistries thwart efficient dissembly. Resource circularity must lead materials research. Antimony anodes, comparable to several other battery components, also have been problematic to recondition. Energy-intensive high temperature melting and extracting or smelting are usually required. Depleted batteries contain lithium hexafluorophosphate and polyvinylidene fluoride toxic materials. Undervalued, global lithium battery recycling rates averaged only 3% and 5% in USA. As spate of worn batteries piled up, the US DoE Department of Energy sought to greatly increase battery recycling rates. The DoE ReCell R&D Center’s other objective is to reduce transportation of foreign sourced materials. North America, Europe, and China lithium-ion battery scrap processing industries “accelerated significantly” to reach over 50% recycling during 2022. Rapid growth is projected. Black mash battery burning pyrometallurgy and shredded bits hydrometallurgy methods begin to be replaced by designs of considerate component packaging methods and reverse manufacturing techniques. These dissociate over 90% of battery anodes, cathodes and separator materials, as simply as assembled, that can be used in new batteries. Possibly ionic electrodeposition techniques more directly recover and regenerate most lithium cobalt oxide compounds. Reducing the reagents used in mechanical battery reprocessing returns “cleaner” water. Lithium-ion transport and solid electrolyte separation technology is developed that extracts over 90% brine pool lithium using little water or chemicals. The 1-2 day continuous process draws minimal electricity. A low cost lithium alternate uses Na-ion sodium. Its salt could be derived from ocean water desalination. Inexpensive sodium (salt) batteries are more conductive than lithium and charge to 80% capacity in 15 minutes. In application they have good retention rate, particularly in cold environments, but their 248 miles (399 km) driving range needs more volume to equal that of a lithium powered vehicle. Sodium and lithium ion combinations increase the range 278 to 310 miles (447-499 km). Borohydride complexes and salts are investigated, in context of ammonia borane hydrogen storage, but slow and low yields remain problematic. Another storage medium is quite inexpensive iron-oxygen exchange batteries that generate and discharge electricity for up to four days. The batteries reverse rust’s oxidation to repeatedly store and release oxygen. Iron, the fourth most common element, is over 1,000 times more plentiful than rare earth lithium. Non-flammable materials of ceramic oxygen-ion batteries are even more abundant. Made from widely available and generally inert resources, that do not degrade, relatively low energy density and very hot operating temperatures limit their utility.

While moving from terra fuels is necessary, and improved batteries overcome several difficulties, solely renewable electric transportation and storage modes indicate missteps on path to low carbon discharges. When environmental conditions varied more rapidly, some yielded toward a goal of deep decarbonization and net ZEV zero emissions vehicles. Claiming, “near zero carbon footprint”, omitted is which long duration storage materials and methods for electric, gas, or both energy systems can be used with least environmental impact. Round trip efficiency contends untenable true cost of rare or hazardous materials, sourcing, manufacture, and toxic waste remediation. Direct example is mid-Atlantic Ocean pollution seeping from The Felicity Ace cargo ship that sank 1 March 2022. The vessel was transporting at least 4,000 electric and non-electric vehicles. Fire possibly ignited from fuel, oil, or a lithium battery that started a chain reaction. Most BEV manufacturers dig in and cling to the renewables-electric standard. For assurance, additional power conversion and storage steps of hydrogen “fool(s) cells” are mocked- an unnecessary diversion from an all-electric global model. Molecular interactions form only one reality. The battery models’ gravest defect is technological counter-capacity to approach, mediate, and resolve water mismanagement. Directly, or indirectly, all battery life-cycle phases negatively and permanently affect large amounts of water and do nothing to intervene hydroface rise.

Vision remerges for the renewable “hydrogen economy“, less sluggish from modern half century contention. In 1977 Daimler Benz operated a minibus on pure hydrogen. Near start of effort level that should have initiated decades ago, a global race is detectable. Fewer pundits doubt practicality of consumer scale 100% HFCV hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. Some “early” adapters are recognized for contending the present “which came first, the chicken or the egg” hydrogen availability and demand conundrum. From 1970’s cutting and filing paper articles, through times exemplified in India by Tata Motor’s 2015 launch of HFC hydrogen fuel cell automobiles and 2021 order for 15 HFC buses, 2020’s decade activity is several fold increased to now just self-emailing links. More follow even as louder skeptics double down. Others, as Honda with its Clarity vehicle, back up or possibly back out of opportunity. Yet new generation of pioneers cultivate technologies for hydrogen production electrolyzers, storage, and distribution infrastructures. Despite an April 2020 explosion (no casualties) at One H2, North Carolina HFC manufacturing plant and the Coronavirus pandemic, or somehow because of it, international hydrogen developments became relatively frenetic. Quickly improving equipment is becoming practical for mobile, standalone, and industrial power and heating applications. Preferred hydrogen fuel cells deliver almost thermally benign electricity and emit only water. Short-term load flexibility enables real time pricing. Cost falls when production increases. During 2021, the cost to move hydrogen from offshore and deeper electrolyzer sites became less than electrical transmission. Yet less than 4% H2 production was from renewables and less than 1% H2 was made by electrolysis. Industrial electrolyzer technology is “logjammed”. Still, a Pilbara, Australia renewable energy hub has phased plans for 15 gigawatt electrolyzer capacity by 2027. 12 gigawatts will be used for hydrogen production. 2022’s increasing electricity prices and low carbon fuel standards credits in United States, that should hasten the shift, ironically degraded hydrogen hub financing and development. That year USA President Biden’s orders intended to spur innovation and reduce clean energy technology cost. Rapid commercialization of renewable hydrogen storage is on the list that includes batteries. Research is funded for hydrogen electrolyzers and variety of HFC using low cost compound materials and nanomaterial geometries. Renewably produced hydrogen is planned to replace natural gas at Los Angeles, California's largest gas-fired power plant.

Hydrogen transportation over road and rail is begun and demonstrated with airplanes, ships, and submarines. On sea horizon, H2 hydrogen powered transport ships, and other vessels that ply the oceans, combine on board electrolysis with refueling stops at ports and off-grid hydrogen stations. Remote marine renewable energy installations, such as OWEBs, may be part of managed hydrogen shipping networks that transport fuel cells to land. The Hydrogen for Trucks Act 2023 bill was reintroduced in USA’s Senate. The largest automaker Toyota, and partners, continue shifting operations to 100% renewables. Toyota Green Energy contemplates offshore wind H2 production for their HFCV vehicles. Japan and South Korea begin to use HFC in heavy-duty trucks. China introduced light commercial truck fleets powered by hydrogen fuel cells. Brisk advancements quickly age HFCV driving range estimates of about 310-398 miles (500-640 kilometers) for cars. Buses and long-haul trucks capacities significantly extend the distance. Hyzon Motors Class 8 truck has range up to 500 miles (805 km) and 15 minute refueling time. H2 cryo-compression experiments achieved 805-1,046 miles (1,295-1,683 km). The Hyperion XP-1 prototype has 1,016 miles (1,635 km) range and accelerates from 0 to 60 mph in 2.3 seconds. One gallon of hydrogen powered a specialty lightweight vehicle over 1,200 miles (1,931 km). Still, reliance on low temperature liquid H2 and pressurized containment increase cost. Various manufacturers electrically supplement HFC for on demand peak power. Blocks of scrap aluminum+gallium or indium+alloys have been used, at ambient temperature, to reactively separate H2 from poured water. Storage density is greater than compressed hydrogen gas but reducing agents are toxic. Former hydrogen fuel cell basher or stealth Meister Volkswagen, in 2022, worked with Kraftwerk Tubes to develop HFC consumer cars that promise to have 1,243 miles (2,000 km) driving range. The fuel cell does not use platinum. Its ceramic membranes are less expensive to produce than plastic polymer cells. Technology behaves like solid-state batteries. Both have nearly equivalent electrolytes and material structure. The ceramic membrane does not require moistening and does not freeze, dry out, or attract mold. It runs hot- a drawback although some heat can be used for vehicle climate control.

Ubiquitous H2 hydrogen gas is isolated by techniques of varying practicality. “Green hydrogen” is associated with water electrolysis produced from renewable electricity, typically, solar and wind installations located on land or offshore. Part of OWECO’s 1978 work, before arriving at ocean wave energy conversion, floating wind power arrays develop during 2020’s. With bumping reapproval of the long foretold hydrogen economy, too many seemingly lucrative options jam clarity from among industries’ numerous colorful ways to extract, move, and use H2. Several hydrogen production, storage, and transportation technologies have material and water management obstacles similar to batteries. Very important is to distinguish fully sustainable materials and methods from activity now underway. “Purple”, “red”, “yellow”, or “pink hydrogen” tints are made with nuclear power taints that accompany excessive water demand, heat, and longtime toxic wastes. USA’s oldest facility, at Oswego, New York, began hydrogen production 2022 for full operation in 2025. Despite fallout from nuclear events, advocation of “horse blinders” profit models continue false or incomplete accounting of the true costs to segregate and recycle detrimental process effluents. From iron rich rocks and water’s naturally accumulating “white”, “orange”, or “gold hydrogen”, a variety of gas extraction intensities express in other shady hues including so called gold “carbon neutral hydrogen produced from depleted oil reservoirs that are ready for plug and abandonment”. “Black” or “brown” hydrogen derivation is encouraged from bituminous or lignite coal, oil, and natural gas process chemical byproducts. Steam methane reformation and pyrolysis coal gasification methods support amplification of standard procedures to reach evermore remote, hostile, and unproductive resource sites. Paraguay aimed for 310 megawatts capacity made with “renewable diesel”. Turquoise “blue hydrogen” extraction releases carbon oxides from biomass or municipal waste feedstocks. “Cyan hydrogen”, a shade of teal, turquoise and other blue-green colors, represents hydrogen derived from injecting natural gas containing methane into high-temperature steam reactors that thermochemically decompose it to hydrogen and solid carbon. Desulfurized coal or natural gas reformed “gray hydrogen” releases CO2 carbon dioxide that requires CCS carbon capture, sequestration, and monitoring. CCS can detain almost 95% of process CO2 during hydrogen production. The “blue hydrogen” expression is there usurped- hijacked- from the Blue Economy to describe intermediate steps of gray H2 storage in empty gas fields. These methods also produce potent byproducts that negate benefits. Methane emissions and land use are not addressed. Several majors coordinated efforts to implement an “H-vision” gray plan at Port of Rotterdam. Global shipping emissions are equivalent to the eighth largest country and ABB noted that “shipping is responsible for 2.5% of global greenhouse-gas emissions”. International Maritime Organization has a goal of halving carbon emissions from 2008 levels by 2050. United Arab Emirates works on “Green Ammonia and Hydrogen” water electrolysis production plants at Abu Dhabi. Intended for ships, ammonia fuels seem backward when ocean going vessels travel in the expanding medium that could propel them. April 2020 Green Car Report stated that Swiss firm ABB and Hydrogène de France were to develop a megawatt-scale Ballard Power Systems PEM polymer electrolyte membrane (or proton exchange membrane) fuel cell to power ferries, cruise ships, and other large ships. China’s hydrogen fuel cell and lithium battery powered service ship No. 1 started operating at Three Gorges reservoir during 2023. Of note, a Philippines entity constructed a hybrid H2 and wave energized ferry. Likely, holds or ballast chambers- even bow bulbs- are open below to convert OWC oscillating water column pressures. OWC technology, developed over many decades, is described in By Others section. Wave-powered hydraulic pumps maintain leaky old boats, at anchor, but ship motion controls need mediate heaving conversion to propulsion. Decommissioning tankers are possibly retrofitted to continue as moored, compartmentalized, oscillating water columns or preferably as hydrogen processing facilities.

Present economics overlook or misalign true cost and necessary level of effort to engage oceans. Hydrocarbon or nuclear processed hydrogen production, even from raised seas described in the Water section, inefficiently attends aqueous gushes and both must be destined to the back burner as “alternative energy”. Along with failing technological response to the rapidly changing liquid world, this most serious deficiency demands acceleration of the transition to water based clean energy. Plans revise, we are late, and must sea change to utilizing ocean water as principal global fuel. Quickening hydroface rise requires very active participation to convert, use, and recirculate large volumes of saltwater liquid as fresher water, minerals, and gases. A global water sequestration and hydrogen distribution network corroborates important role for ocean water management, transportation, and grid stability. Feeling brunt of the energy paradigm shift during 2021, akin to “throwing the baby out with the bathwater”, several natural gas and petroleum entities contemplated shuttering facilities and terminating operations. Instead, and still omitted from 2023 dialogue, mandatory is industry-wide implementation of relatively minor alteration to existing equipment, infrastructure, transmission corridors, and shipping. Hydrogen tolerant pipes and portable storage packets well adapt to the ocean electric-hydrogen Blue Economy. May 2020 PowerGrid International reported that Lux Research examined 15 different renewable energy carriers. Analysis determined that solar energy can be delivered to a region at lower cost than local solar production. Near term, long distance energy delivery by ship is more efficient than powerlines and pipelines. By 2030, HVDC power lines transmission is less expensive than natural gas and, in 2040, imported liquid hydrogen is cheaper than steam methane reformation.

First, liquid and colorful hydrogen media need relegation to gaseous H2. Emulating nature’s hydrogen management elegance is systems development requirement that electrical storage materials alone cannot replicate. Vegetation or our selves’ efficient, necessary absorption and diffusion of N nitrogen and O oxygen’s breath and H2O dihydrogen monoxide water seems compatible operant with our bodies’ electrical circuitry. H2 and O2 infusions safely refill our own CO2 carbon dioxide exhalations. Beyond metals and plastics, development must focus on fully reproduceable methods and biomaterials that emulate low-cost organic ways for storing and distributing H2. Biological hydrogen and oxygen storage methods may be less damaging and possibly beneficial in marine environments. For now the dominant H2 production mode is DC direct current electrolysis. DC electricity separates hydrogen and oxygen gases from fresh, desalinated, and ocean waters. Wood Mackenzie March 2020 reported Engie and Air Liquide’s HyGreen Provence, France plant will have 900 megawatts electrolysis capacity from solar by 2030- good drops in the bucket containing India’s 2030 plan to produce 5,000,000 tons of “green” hydrogen per year. Notwithstanding monsoon, still rarer are fresh water supplies that fill buckets. To the purpose, clarification demands gray H2’s relinquishment of color blue. Renewably derived True Blue H2 and oxygen, off taken from reflective “Blue Marble” oceans so visibly emblematic of Earth from space, is core source that by our use helps to sequester and manage rising sea levels. Oxygen is renewably pumped down to revigorate ocean dead zones.

The world annually uses 80 million metric tons of hydrogen. One estimate of 2050 global hydrogen demand is set at more than 300 million metric tons. That may be low. United States presently uses more than 10 million metric tons, annually, that is transported through 1,600 miles (2,575 km) of dedicated hydrogen pipelines. The 2022 Energy Infrastructure Reinvestment Program, Section 45V, provides for Clean Hydrogen Production Tax Credits, additional loan authorizations, and new loans. The USA DoE Department of Energy Technologies Office and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory advance research and development on “H2@Scale” hydrogen fuel cell storage and infrastructure for seaports and other Energy-Water Desalination Hubs. A component of the DoE’s Waves to Water Prize focuses on seawater desalination for drinking water. Other funding is directed to expanding hydrogen refueling infrastructure over road. Hydrogen corridors develop for Midwest Interstate highway 80 and a heavy duty freight truck network on Interstate 10 from Houston, Texas to Los Angeles, California. Truck and rail are used for specialty delivery.

A hydrogen mass has almost three times the energy of an equivalent petroleum mass. Yet its far greater volume requires compression, not liquification, to fall within usable form factors for storage and mobility applications. Gaseous H2 capacity of solid-state metal hydride materials, and other nanostructured compounds, at ambient temperature exceeds liquid cold storage per unit volume. Discharge produces electricity and water. Along with accelerating work on clean, long-duration storage, another Prize component addresses refinement of water electrolyzers. PEM polymer electrolyte membrane (or proton exchange membrane) fuel cells are one of several technologies focused on obviating partial load, low current density, and low-pressure of alkaline electrolyzers. International efforts focus on providing greater energy density metals while reducing use of expensive lithium and rare-earth elements. Developments optimize alloys’ safe and recyclable solid-state materials, nanointerface reaction pathway geometries, room temperature tunable de/sorption cycle reversibility, range extenders, and reduced weight. Some advancements target carbonaceous elements and photoelectrochemical techniques to produce higher density storage systems. Carbon-based nanoparticles compositions may incorporate CO2 carbon dioxide greenhouse gas. Improving recyclable materials render CCS carbon capture and storage that also isolate CO carbon monoxide.

During 2021, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay used a low cost compound of cobalt and oxygen that achieves similar reaction speeds to platinum, rhodium, and iridium. Carbon nano-florets coat cobalt oxide particles that conduct electrical fields. Speed increases almost 300% using intermittent external magnetic fields. That year University of Central Florida USA researchers developed a stable thin-film seawater electrolyzer. Seawater electrolysis evolves hydrogen and oxygen at the anode. The hydrogen cation performs but difficulties laid in excessive chlorine at the anion portion. An inexpensive combination of nickel selenide nanostructures, fixed with iron and phosphor, durably catalyzes and overcomes competing seawater reactions. As part of DoE’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, University of Oregon, and Manchester Metropolitan University scientists improved hydrogen and oxygen separation from seawater using a double membrane system and electricity. Sandwiched between cation and anion exchange membranes, a water dissociation bipolar catalyst allows control of the way ions move in seawater while preventing sodium chloride from reacting the anode. Producing such membranes from abundant, recyclable, and possibly organic materials is achievable goal. 2022, Imperial College London researchers collaborated with UK fuel cell catalyst manufacturer Johnson Matthey. The team developed an inexpensive iron and carbon HFC using nitrogen magnetized catalysts that approach performance, stability, and durability of platinum. The oxygen reduction catalyst disperses iron as single atoms within an electrically conducting carbon matrix. A “transmetallation” process eliminates iron clusters formation during synthesis. Various PFB proton flow batteries integrate solid-state metal hydride-Nafion storage electrodes in reversible PEM cells. During charging, the sulfonated tetrafluoroethylene based fluoropolymer-copolymer combines hydrogen ions with electrons and particulate metals in one electrode. Protons are combined with ambient oxygen when the process is reversed. Advanced Ionics 2022 SOE solid oxide electrolyzer was reported to use 212 F (100 C) to 1,202 F (650 C) industry process or waste heat for producing hydrogen from water vapor electrolysis. Suggested is that electricity is more expensive to store than heat. SOE techniques add carbon dioxide to produce either hydrogen or synthesized methane and hydrocarbons mixtures that produce carbon monoxide. Excessive heat is already problematic. CO is a no, no, and more sensible hydrogen infrastructure accelerates. July, 2021, Shell Energy and Chemicals Park, Rhineland, Germany became Europe’s largest PEM hydrogen electrolyzer manufacturer to start operations. Traditional fuel production is projected to decrease by 55 percent before 2030. In addition to making aviation fuel from biomass, and bio liquefied natural gas, Shell has a 2050 target for producing net-zero emissions from offshore winds and becoming a leading hydrogen supplier. In European Commission Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking, five plants will produce up to 1,300 tons of “green” hydrogen per year for cross-sector distribution. Electrolyzer capacity is planned to increase from 10 megawatts to 100 megawatts. Shell funds Eemshaven, Netherlands NortH2 project for 10 gigawatts, 750 megawatts electrolyzer capacity by 2040. Shell also partnered with RWE AG, Siemens AG, and the Island of Heligoland to produce 1 million tons of green hydrogen a year. The AquaVentus site, offshore of Germany, is planned by 2035 to have 10 gigawatts capacity powered by offshore wind farms. Svevind AB, the company that in Sweden developed Europe’s largest wind farm, during 2021 contracted with Kazakhstan to construct almost 30 GW electrolyzers and 45 GW renewables capacity. About 2 million tons of hydrogen will be produced annually. June, 2022, BP acquired a 40.5% share, valued at $36 billion, of the Asian Renewable Energy Hub in Western Australia. BP’s activities, along with InterContinental Energy Corp., CWP Global, and Macquarie Group, focus on using vast desert tracts of wind and solar power, “half the size of Belgium”, to annually produce 28 GW and about 20 million tons of ammonia or, preferably, 3.5 million tons of hydrogen. InterContinental Energy and Oman’s OQ government investment company are poised to provide essential links between Asia and Europe. By 2030 global output could increase to about 11.6 million tons per year. Still lagging other regions’ hydrogen developments, under the 2021 Inflation Reduction Act, USA’s DoE Department of Energy made $8 billion available to stimulate the Hydrogen Economy. During 2023 it slated funds up to $7 billion to establish regional clean hydrogen hubs, feedstock diversity, end-use diversity, and geographic diversity. Alaska and Hawaii certainly qualify. Up to $750 million supports development to lower the cost of electrolyzer technology, high throughput manufacturing of electrolyzers and fuel cells, and domestic supply chains. Tax credit eligibility predicates on “Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Rate” cost. Green Hydrogen International Corp. is planning with Corpus Christi, Texas to promote a “Hydrogen City” having 60 GW capacity. Starting operation in 2026, the project will be able to renewably produce more than 3 million tons of hydrogen a year. It will be stored in Piedras Pintas Salt Dome caverns for pipeline delivery to Brownsville and Corpus Christi ports. Outlined in the Google Earth OWEB application, global networks of existing utility plants, grids, and pipelines are adaptable for connecting hydrogen mobility infrastructures. Modifications to extensive urban H2 lines enable longer distance transmission. For example, plastics can be effective for reducing hydrogen pipe embrittlement. Yet feeder build-out is impractical to reach users in many regions. Off grid storage, handling, and transportation must be safely managed at all scales of use. Room-temperature, high density, gaseous fuel cell storage materials and weight improvements allow block packet distribution to more locations. Modular, stackable, dry solid-oxide H2 packs are circuited between utility and chemical plants, regional storage banks, transoceanic ships, planes, long-haul heavy-payload trucks, buses, and automobiles. Convenience store swap-out is possibly exemplary goal for consumer-scale transportation and residential applications. In-home H2 production is not recommended.

Imperative transition gains momentum to lowering carbon emissions using non-carbon hydrogen fuel. More importantly, the deadline for regulating ocean water inundation passes. Accelerating hydroface rise requires rapid involvement to lower and sequester excess seawater in the form of gases. From Wave Hub facilities small scale wave energy experiments to large OWEB Ocean Wave Energy weBs, renewably derived hydrogen from ocean water helps to moderate rising seas. Oceans are the only True Blue H2 offtake supply that directly contributes to hydroface fall and stabilization at preferred water levels. Ocean dead zones revigorate from renewably pumped down oxygen. "Exhaust streams” management is compulsory facet of full-cycle seawater fuel processes encompassing the growing Blue Economy. Minerals “set asides” must be recirculated in close-loop cycles. Outlined in the OWEB section, operations are increasingly efficient nearer to polar fresher raised seawater released by former ice. Demand for marine hydrokinetic deployments in polar regions, particularly difficult about Antarctica, necessarily become first focus source for large scale hydrogen production. Wave powered water transfer operations also may hydrate arid and desert areas.

The rapidly shifting ocean world challenges careful, progressive adaptation. Ocean’s desalinated water, and its iodized salt electrolyte mixtures that improve electrolysis to chemically pure hydrogen and medical-grade oxygen, are biggest blue bow tie’s knot binding solutions to problems- the unifying element for managing the most impactful of changing climate expressions. Only renewably purified seawater produced clean hydrogen and oxygen gases directly intervene both the cause and symptoms of rising seas. As adequate seawater portions are electrolyzed to gases, sequestered on land in processes of living, industry, and transport, remineralized and again recycled to sea, then grave difficulties transform to synergetic opportunities. Direct focus is required, past conscious ignorance, to expand this enduring, “meant to be”, water fuel and air management infrastructure.


Proposal contents are in draft and complete forms. Further detail is available upon request.


Ocean Wave Energy Company Mission
OWEC® Inception
Wave Tank Test
OWEC® Drawing
Small Business Innovation Research
OWEC® Computer Program
Definition of Variables
Introduction to Analysis
Basic Equations of Motion for Ocean Waves
55 Degree Angled Shaft Effects
Buoy Shape and Surface Effects
Transmission Calculations
Breadboard Test/Computer Program Correlation
USCG Comments on the Research and OWECO Response
Work In Progress
Phase Two Technical Objectives
Phase Two Research and Development Work Plan
Transmissions and Electrical Generators
Power Transmission Techniques and Materials
Lightning Protection
Manufacturing Techniques
Molds and Components
Buoy/Buoyancy Chamber/Tube Design and Materials
Buoyancy Chamber
Bearing, Driveshaft, Tube
Shock Absorber
Damper Sheet
Module Connector
Module Construction
OWEC® Deployment
Sea Trial Management Plan
Sea Trial Security
Sea Trial Documentation
Research Relationship with Development and Manufacture
Potential Commercial Applications
OWEC® Breakwaters
Large Scale OWEC® Interconnectivity Synergy
OWEC® Desalination and Hydrogen Development Program
Fuel Cells
Hydroface Level Adjustment
OWEC® Environmental Impact Assessment
OWEC® Manufacture and Cycling


(click on patent image for full PDF file)

*US Patent # 4,672,222 - Foerd authored, hand drafted drawing figures (graphite/Mylar), and prosecuted patent application. Figure 5 was an intense exercise. Patent error is noted that harmonic drives are not variable ratio.

Please contact Foerd for information.

By Others

Note: This page will be revised to describe more recent wave energy activity from, at last count, over 400 entities.

1 May 14- ecoRI news article highlights University of Rhode Island, Electro Standards Laboratory, and agency complicity with federally funded LEG linear electric generator constructs. Look familiar? Indeed, manifestation of OWECO's 1978 drawings leading to the tetrahedral design. This is gaming example of non-modular technical approaches, and problems, that persist to garner our tax dollars.

2014 URI/ESL R-O

1978 OWECO LEG Concept Drawing

Plethora of seemingly divergent equipment has been proposed or slightly developed, in haste to a quick fix, for converting the large amounts of mechanical energy present in water waves to electrical energy. Small scale offshore devices have been ocean tested and activity is increased since the 1992 Earth Summit identified carbon dioxide emission reduction as central objective against climate change. Yet exploitation is only slowly evolving from early stages of technical development. Despite wide variety of proposed wave power devices, from over 175 entities, extensive utilization of practical configurations is partly restrained by designs of limited material efficacy that provide blurry vision of required technological response. Within considerable range of apparently differing technique are inferred general classification of well understood approaches. The art field is now expanding to copious extent so to seemingly dilute improvement rate from among core precedent. As with many current products comprising increased technoplexity of theretofore well-adapted apparatus, contributions by Roberts, and others, are largely forgotten or purposely ignored. Incrementally diminished concept variation forms infringing identity of construct, trademark, and particular confusion to those becoming interested in the art. Several entities quite exactly reproduce LEG linear electrical generator elements invented April 1978, disclosed in 1980 U.S. Patent 4,232,230 to Ames, and tank tested 1982. Still others pursue power conversion aspects of U.S. Patent 4,672,222 to Ames.

Though signs of I.L. Roberts’ 1881 invention remain discernable through the noise, extremely few systematic techniques have been achieved. Instead, the field is replete with designs of usually disproportionate, complex, unitary, or lineal style that off-scale end use functions and do not efficiently avail planar expanses of multi-directionally fluctuative energy comprising the wave environment. Majority prior and current approaches comprise fundamentally permanent wave conversion installations positioned on shorelines, breakwaters, or in shallow water. While power of breaking waves is visually prominent along coastlines that seem obvious installation locale for several proposals, such phenomena are actually in shape change perturbation, losing energy to increasing bottom friction, and confused exhaustion upon shore. With relatively high ancillary cost, fixedly structured surge channels are necessarily durable to withstand slamming and storm damage. Such land-bound or onshore structure proportions are unavoidably off-scale with normal wave activity and readily may generate functionally disrupting reflected waves. Often, land uses impose operational, environmental, or social constraint from scenic degradation.

Extensive commercial utilization is partly restrained by device practical limitations for maximal potential use of available resources and materials. Commonly, wave energy converters are designed with absence of neutrally stabilized unit modularity by which self-supported modules are similarly interconnected with other of an array for expansion or reduction to any desired quantity. Powerful but diffuse wave nature requires a significant number of devices to generate industrial scale electricity. Conglomerate investment in singular, or quantity single point-of-use, devices divert application from direct energy extraction of multipoint generated multidirectional waves at the times they locally promulgate and subside. Frugal industrial interface with such medium would suggest that, if a “large bucket of money were thrown” at the kinetic opportunity, technology imprint must also be of diffuse nature- dominantly horizontal planarly distributed and openly spread, point-to-point, in melding correlation with hydroface. This quality is vital for matching the electrical product to changing end use demands.

Representative examples of oversized devices are intended for "concentration" of wave energy into a tapered area before conversion. These focusing surge devices are sizable barriers that channel large waves to increase wave height for redirection into elevated reservoirs. The water then passes through hydroelectric turbines on the way back to sea level thus generating electricity. Land or breakwater grid-connected wave power systems include a 350 kW Norwegian Tapered Channel plant and an Indian 150 kW oscillating water column. Japanese plants of 20, 30, 60 kW, and a 75 kW Scottish project put estimates of existing worldwide capacity at about 700 kW. The durability of the Norwegian design led to two commercial 1.5 megawatt power plants in Java, Indonesia and King Island located near Tasmania. Environmental objection to continuous arrays of onshore or shore based wave-energy devices are founded upon the physical alteration of coastlines. These array types may present hazards to shipping, affect marine ecology, and result in coastal erosion where the waves are concentrated and more sedimentation in adjacent areas. During severe storms, energy transmitted by breaking waves may be over 10 times average conditions and coastal wave energy plants must be built to withstand these forces. Thus, while focusing devices are less susceptible to storm damage, massive structuring renders them most costly among wave power plant types.

Proposals for pneumatic wave energy converters (PWEC) or anchored oscillating water column mechanisms (OWC) utilize pressure changes of above hydroface, closed-chamber air columns for driving turbines and generators. The simplest examples are navigational buoys where waves entering the anchored buoy compress air in a vertical pipe. The compressed air is used to blow a whistle or drive a turbine generator producing electricity for light. Since 1965, Japan has installed hundreds of OWC-powered navigational buoys and is currently operating two small demonstration OWC power plants. China constructed a 3 kW OWC having an artificial gully and a Wells turbine. India has a 150 kW OWC caisson breakwater device with Wells turbine. PWECs receive much attention by inventors and in international cooperative efforts such as "Kaimei", a large, multi-chamber experimental barge. It was shown that power extraction was maximal at the resonant period of the air-water column and not at the natural period of heaving. In monochromatic seas, turbine stators were manually adjusted for "tuning" impedance of conversion means to the resonant period but satisfactory automatic "tuning" was not achieved. Though results were made with "Kaimei", partially due to its overall size in excess of multiple wavelengths, concepts for autonomous versions of PWEC seem plagued with a further problem whereby chamber means develop self-heaving among irregularities of wave form and period that usually negate "tuning". The resulting oscillation of the chamber and wave group is often cophasal. This effect severely curtails air pressure flow through the turbine and subsequent power extraction. Taut mooring may be employed to limit chamber movement but this condition causes undesirable submergence of operative components in swell conditions and suffers the above mentioned deployment limitations. Furthermore, omnidirectional deployment of the device covers and dampens the source of energy from which it operates.

Other products use submerged shoreline turbine generators, near shore anchored wave stations, and near shore combined wave and wind stations. Typical hybrid assemblies essentially share available force and are most conspicuous in single or spaced apart “multiple single” point-of-use applications. Representative pneumatic or hydroelectric fabrications normally have generally tapered cowling means intended for redirecting and concentrating predominately unidirectional wave surge toward turbine focus. Or, a heaving air column in a captive chamber is vented through turbines and power take-off. Such designs typically necessitate high maintenance, costly, taut moorings or foundations per unit for operation while only using the extreme upper strata of an ocean site for energy conversion. Additionally, taut mooring deployment is limited to primarily onshore locations.

Another typical configuration is defined by an elongated housing, mounted on columns above a body of water, having several suspended driveshafts with buoys. Driveshafts are series-connected to a common output shaft. This mechanical unification of disparately operative point absorbers centralizes energy conversion means that must be responsive to extensively variable forces ranging from slight movement of a single buoy to substantial movement of all buoys. Conversion means are necessarily constructed to accommodate maximal forces and, thus, are less efficient when other conditions prevail. Additional concepts incorporate dense mass associated with buoyancy means for equalizing power take-off from buoyancy in the upward direction and gravity in the downward direction. Rather than improving electrical generation efficiency, such buoy associated mass impedes upward buoy movement after submergence. Conversely, downward forces of additional mass are partially negated by buoy lift. Resultantly, reciprocation frequency is substantially lower than wave frequency thus causing partial cessation and slower output speeds during normal operation. This device also suffers source dampening.

A Wave Energy Module (WEM) implements two parallel platforms connected by six hydraulic pumps with check valves. One platform, a raft, floats on the hydroface and the other, a reaction plate, is suspended below the hydroface for dampening. The structure also incorporates elastic suspension cords. As the raft rises relative to the reaction plate, the pumps force fluid through end ports to charge a high-pressure accumulator. A low-pressure accumulator forces fluid back into the pumps when the raft lowers. While a measurable improvement over other platform devices, such as the Cockerell Wave Contouring Raft, the apparatus remains scale sensitive. For example, if the impinging wave profile is low amplitude/high frequency or high amplitude/low frequency, the entire structure is raised and lowered quite evenly thus maintaining a parallel relation with little relative movement between the platforms. Tensioning of elastic cords would divert otherwise useful wave energy. Implementation of hydraulic fluids adds an unnecessary step to the conversion process. Furthermore, this device is not readily associative with other similar units and thus is not a module.

The Salter Duck comprises a longitudinal series of floating vessels pivoting about a common shaft that drives hydraulic fluid to produce electricity. Vessels are shaped as coformed circular and triangular sectional vanes. A Duck variant was used as a unidirectional wavemaker in a demonstration film. The appearance of 80% incoming wave energy capture is depicted when the film was run backward. Deployment of several units requires sufficient non-interference spacing. The configuration causes detrimental forces on hinging mechanisms with less than optimal orientation over more realistic seascapes.

Demi-Tek Inc., West Caldwell NJ, proposed a "Monitor" hybrid tide, wave, and wind electrical generation system in the ocean off Asbury Park. The invention is in service, August 1999, generating enough energy to light the boardwalk and Convention Hall. The lab tested Monitor is designed to reduce wave action on severely eroded beaches along the coast. The 12' x 20' x 40' system is secured, by catapult-type cables that expand or retract with ocean currents. The cables attach to 30-foot anchors screwed into the ocean floor, as used on large oil rigs today. Each anchor carries 140,000 pound load and six anchors are estimated as sufficient to withstand a major storm. Monitor water is guided so that it flows in one direction to spin blades that produce electricity. The electricity is then transferred to shore through a cable buried in the sand. One such device is reported to generate one megawatt.

Ocean Power Technologies, Princeton, NJ, has developed a "hydropiezoelectric" generator consisting of a slender panel tethered between a float and anchor. Panel models are 50’ long, 1’ wide, about 1’ thick, and consist of 50 to 100 thin sheets of a polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene copolymer. Electricity is generated from applied pressure as this piezoelectric material is stretched and released by rising and falling buoys. The inventors claim that an array of generators covering five square kilometers could supply electricity for 250,000 people at a cost of one to three cents per kWh. This compares with about five cents for electricity produced from state-of-the-art combined cycle gas plants and eight or more cents for oil-fired stations. "It's a very new concept. It's a feasible technology but it's a matter of cost at the end of the day. It seems an incredibly low figure. Even the most favorable cost estimate from current wave power technology is five to eight cents per kWh. When an early proposal has such low figures, one tends to be skeptical," said Tony Lewis, of Ireland's University of Cork, who also advises the European Commission on wave power. Japan's Penta-Ocean Construction Company Ltd. has contributed an undisclosed sum to fund the construction of a 1-kilowatt (kW) prototype in the Gulf of Mexico. While the proposed geometry draws many questions and suffers from usual taut mooring problems, the material may be practically used for OWEC® damper plates and bellows or sleeves, as further described. OWECO suggests material evaluation of this "crackling carpet" for efficient sea anchorage while synergetically generating electricity on selected modules.

Larry Bergren tank tested a wave energy device consisting of a floating buoy and a submerged plate. Both buoy and plate are vertical, straight, circular cylinders of equal radius connected to a power take-off mechanism. The mechanism breaking force is controlled to enable corroborating tests of various mathematical models. Hydrodynamic properties of wave induced forces are calculated keeping the buoy and the plate fixed. Added mass and damping interactions are calculated separately for the two bodies by oscillating one of the bodies and keeping the other one fixed. Hydrodynamic properties are solved by the method of matched eigenfunction expansion. The model allows non-linear phenomena to be included in the time domain. Examples of such phenomena may be irregular waves, non-linear power take-off mechanisms and non-linear drag forces.

Of note, United States Patent 5,186,822 issued Feb. 16, 1993 to Tzong, et al referenced OWEC® U.S. Pat. 4,672,222 to Ames despite substantial technical difference. This wave powered desalination apparatus includes turbine-driven pressure responsive desalination means, a storage tank and conduit connecting to a pump mounted in a resonant chamber caisson having an opening in one side for receiving the incoming ocean waves. The caisson is configured in accordance with the natural frequency of the incoming waves and amplifies waves to drive a float coupled with the pump. Actuation of such pump pressurizes the storage tank to drive brine through desalination means for separating potable water. The apparatus includes a turbine generator arranged to facilitate pressurizing of the brine.

Cited devices indicate hestoric trends and do not exhaust the myriad permutations in the field of wave energy conversion elucidated in US Patent Class 60, sub-classes 495-507, Class 290/42-44, 52-54, 60, Class 417/330-334, International Patent Class F03B 13/12, former Classes 290/42-53, ongoing patent, literature, and Internet searches of wave concentrators, pneumatic, self-tuning, parallel platform types, or the above generally described variants.

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