Ocean Wave Energy Company

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Information about Ocean Wave Energy Company, renewable electrical generation technologies, water purification/hydrogen cycling, climate management of the air-ocean world, and OWECO Outsights focusing on related environmental issues and opinions.

27 June 22- The MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology Energy Initiative Spring Symposium laid out “Options for producing low-carbon hydrogen at scale” and described the first of US Department of Energy’s “Energy Earthshots”- the “Hydrogen Shot”. Nuclear energy closely followed renewables, as expected from this venue, to power electrolytic “purple”, “yellow”, or “pink” hydrogen production. Carbon capture and storage topics implied favor toward “turquoise”, “brown”, “cyan”, and “gray” hydrogen production methods. No! True Blue and green H2 production are the only sustainable methods.

8 June 22- World Oceans Day theme is “Revitalization: Collective Action for the Ocean”.

June 22- Power magazine’s Sonal Patel explains “The Vital Link: How HVDC Is Modernizing the Grid”.

1 June 22-Consequences will be dire: Chile’s water crisis is reaching breaking point” yet its “slenderness ratio” is among the world’s longest of land area fronting ocean waves, energy conversion availability, and potential for large scale ocean water desalination operations.

25 May 22- (see 31 July 14) OWECO engineering intern refines generator experiment, control, and possibly ballast functions. NC16

28 April 22-Global warming risks most cataclysmic extinction of marine life in 250m years” and “Ocean animals face a mass extinction from climate change, study finds”.

27 April 22- National Geographic investigated “How farmers in Earth’s least developed country grew 200 million trees”. Singular acts respire deeper roots to sustainability.

25 April 22- Imperial College London researchers developed a “cheaper hydrogen fuel cell”, using iron, carbon, and nitrogen that approaches durability and performance of platinum.

15 February 22- The USA NOAA National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration released the 2022 Sea Level Rise Technical Report. USA is expected to experience 1 foot (0.3 meter) SLR by 2050.

15 August 21- (See 15 July 20) India Prime Minister Modi launched a 1.35 trillion USD infrastructure investment plan focusing on climate remediation, energy independence by 2027, clean fuels growth, and specifically on India becoming a global hydrogen production hub. Since 2008, Foerd’s several presentations in India, corporate and government officials meetings, and school visits always emphasized hydrogen (and oxygen) gases’ role in also managing water cycles. Hydrogen color selection- the ways in which hydrogen is produced, is key sustainability marker. OWECO’s India analysis shows ample existing infrastructure to support True Blue H2 generation from seawater.

10 August 21-Faster hydrogen production using magnetized catalyst may lower electrolysis cost

9 August 21- IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published the Working Group I contribution to the Sixth Assessment Report entitled “Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis”. “Profound changes are underway in Earth’s oceans and ice – a lead author explains what the warnings mean”.

6 August 21-Renewable hydrogen distribution can use existing gas pipelines

4 August 21-Hydrogen fuel production from seawater gets closer due to new nanomaterial

3 August 21-Reforestation hopes threaten global food security, Oxfam warns” describes carbon offset conundrums, often used to enable business as usual, that pit reforestation against agriculture. Although mechanization’s rows suggest all other inefficiency, nature-inspired mixing can help to restore or maintain soil and groundwater quality.

29 July 21- Foerd recently transferred for recycling a pandemic’s time of three garbage bags filled with film plastics. “The Recycling Myth- Big Oil’s solution for plastic waste littered with failure” blasts devastating reality over feel-good personal accountability. Long thought was at least like materials were being collected together- possibly having more controllable environmental impact than littering. Jet fuel? No. What “clean” pressure agent can be used to renewably bind or separate, indefinitely, elemental resins at ambient temperature?

23 June 21- Inside the Arctic Circle, at Verkhojansk, Russia, ground temperatures reached 118°F (47.8°C).

22 March 21- The Brayton Point, MA thermal electric plant has become a different site than planned, 2019. Envisioned was converting a thermal plant for offshore wind component manufacturing, deployment operations, energy storage, grid connection, and more. Although missing the hydrogen component, OWECO frequently cited the exemplar. Now, “Somerset struggles amid slow rollout of offshore wind” epitomizes casualty of delay. (see 27 April 19)

4 February 21- "Colgate Introduces a toothbrush that uses 80% less plastic” forty years after Foerd’s reusable toothbrush design. Though stylistically plain, his version inserts a slide-snap handle deeper in the bristlehead. It’s wide shape helps stabilize bristles motions while using fewer disposable materials- possibly 95% less plastic. Reversible head reduces uneven bristle wear. The down side is that increased contact surface area potentially hosts more bacteria.

27 January 21- US President Biden signed Executive Orders to respond to the climate crisis. The Orders are intended to spur innovation that reduces clean energy technology cost. Although unspoken in his comments, rapid commercialization of renewable hydrogen storage is on the list that includes battery storage, negative emissions technologies, novel building materials and, unfortunately, advanced nuclear.

16 October 20- GOLOCALPROV reports that “Baker, Raimondo and Other New England Governors Call for Modernization of Regional Electricity System”. Connecticut Governor Ned Lamont, a family friend, stated that “When Connecticut deregulated our electricity sector, we were promised… a system that respects and accommodates our clean energy mandates… Working together with our neighboring states, I’m committed to achieving a regional electricity grid…” Indeed, regionally and globally unified HVDC electric grids and hydrogen fuel cell storage nodes increase energy delivery reliability.

15 July 20- The Indian government produced a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle feasibility draft.

July 20- Foerd’s article, “Evolving Ocean Energy Technologies and their Influence on Marine Spatial Planning”, is in the Summer edition of The Journal of Ocean Technology.

20-21 November 19- Foerd is a speaker at the 5th Annual Grid-Scale Energy Storage Conference, Albany, New York, that was originally scheduled for 17-18 July 19.

2-4 November 19- Foerd is Chair for the Ocean Renewable Energy track, at BIT’s 8th Annual World Congress of Ocean, Xiamen, China. This year’s Theme, “Caring Our Ocean, Sharing Our Future”, at last includes tracks concerning “Sustainability of Ocean Nature Resources and Environmental Protection”.

1 November 19- Foerd is speaker in a main forum of World Ocean Week, Xiamen, China.

4 October 19- Foerd attended the 10th annual Rhode Island Energy, Environment & Oceans Leaders Day at RI Convention Center. A name change (see 20 October 17) now aptly includes “energy” and “oceans” that align OWECO’s outlook. Hosted by RI Senator Sheldon Whitehouse, presentations and discussions were about decarbonization, climate change, food systems resiliency, marine plastics, and more. Paraphrasing Senator Whitehouse, “food companies are “spooked” by supply chain”. In the “climate war, not that bad legislating in this space… Can get this done as short as time is.” General Treasurer of RI Seth Magaziner stated that 6” sea level rise will occur by 2050 and described uses for Rhode Island Infrastructure Bank’s 15-billion-dollar investment capital. A keynote address by First Street Foundation’s Matthew Eby conveyed sea level rise risks of flooding and crashing United States homeowners and home buyers coastal property values. Global data expansion of the Flood iQ program is needed. Former Federal Energy Regulatory Commissioner Cheryl LaFleur stated the “climate genie is out of the bottle”- a national climate goal of carbon pricing is needed to reveal cheapest and fastest market methods toward energy efficiency. Natural gas was stated as more controllable to ramp up than coal. Wave energy was mentioned near the same breath as nuclear energy… Since many solar and wind feeders are located some distance from population centers, national strategy rules must change to include renewable electrical interconnection and storage. 2018 IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report states that more gas pipelines are not desirable (Foerd says two-way electrical transmission, aggregated battery and hydrogen storage, and packeted overland delivery may help reduce need of pipelines and wires where appropriate). The Senator Whitehouse sponsored Blue Globe Act and co-sponsored Save Our Seas 2.0 Act (SOS) were described. Hip Hop Caucus Leader, Reverend Lennox Yearwood Jr., detailed his work with the young disenfranchised, who don’t want children or are committing suicide in order to depopulate, to instill a constructive approach toward dealing with their inherited world. He teaches how to fight poverty and pollution simultaneously. He stated revolutionaries are “solutionaries” and FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission should be FREC- Federal Renewable Energy Commission. Excellent! He said, “Fight, resist”. Foerd “Greta’s” it but privately questioned Reverend Yearwood about the physics. Resistance is friction that makes heat. Globally engineered, connected cooperation is the quickest, coolest way to simmer down. University of Rhode Island’s Grosvenor Fugate described Graduate School of Oceanography- Ocean Engineering activity in consortium with University of Massachusetts, University of New Hampshire, and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute.

RI Environmental Leaders Day Lunch 2019
After boxed lunches were consumed, afternoon breakout sessions included, “Here, There, and Everywhere: Plastics in Our Environment”, “It’s What’s for Dinner: Climate Change and the U.S. Food Supply”, and “Pathway to Net-Zero Emissions: A RI Update”. Numerous expert panelists provided issues details and enabled audience dialogue. RI Congressmen James Langevin and David Cicilline provided remarks before Senator Whitehouse’s closing remarks. The Day rounded out with a reception. Foerd appreciates Senator Whitehouse’s consistent fortitude, with the issues, and ability to make himself available for one-on-ones throughout this special day.

3 September 19- Power magazine article, “Decarbonizing the Power Sector with Renewable Gas”, generally describes hydrogen storage and dispatch methods similar to the OWECO proposal. Omitted is mention of ocean renewable energy and ocean water as hydrogen (and oxygen) source.

28 June 19- Foerd attended the “Convening the Blue Corridor” meeting at UMass Dartmouth’s School for Marine Science and Technology, New Bedford, MA. Massachusetts congressmen Keating and Kennedy provided inspiration before others spoke about Massachusetts and Rhode Island current marine renewable energy activity. Some detail was presented about the Brayton Point, Somerset, MA thermal plant property conversion for offshore wind manufacturing/staging areas and energy storage using batteries. Foerd questioned whether accommodation is contemplated for hydrogen (and oxygen) storage. This very important topic had not been considered.

26 June 19- The U.S. DOE Department of Energy “opened the first stage of the Waves to Water Prize, which seeks to accelerate the development of wave energy-powered desalination systems and launch novel technologies to address critical water security challenges.” Water desalination/purification is also required for electrolytic hydrogen and oxygen production from seawater.

June 19- International Energy Agency report describes progress with H2 fuel cells for energy storage and transportation.

25 May 19- SEEC PAC Sustainable Energy and Environment Coalition Political Action Committee stated that “India is the third-largest national source of greenhouse gases in the world after China and the United States. Its large – and growing – population and economy make it potentially a massive source of future emissions, as well as ground-zero for climate-related disasters like drought. And yet reports show that India is on track to meet the commitment it made as part of the Paris Agreement in 2015. In fact, renewable energy investments in India have outpaced spending on fossil fuel power generation for the third year in a row. In a new report, the International Energy Agency names ambitious clean energy policies and rapidly decreasing costs of solar panels as the impetuous behind the recent surge of large utility-scale solar projects across India. Under the Paris agreement, India has committed to installing 175 gigawatts of renewable energy capacity by 2022. So far, it has reached over 77 gigawatts of installed renewable energy capacity – more than double what it had just four years ago – and already has an additional 60 gigawatts of renewable energy capacity planned through future projects. While coal is still heavily used throughout India, new coal power generation has been cut in half over the past three years, dropping from roughly 20 gigawatts of additional capacity per year to less than 10 gigawatts."

23 May 19- Foerd attended “Pioneering Ocean Energy Innovation in New England: Wind & Water” conference at the Massachusetts Clean Energy Center, Fall River, MA. Exciting times for the region following the repurposing of Brayton Point coal plant, Somerset, for marine renewable energy deployment and (HVDC) power transmission. A former partner’s wave energy company was well represented in addition to government and municipal entities.

29 April 19-America's renewable energy set to surpass coal for the first month ever

27 April 19- 10 miles from OWECO, the Brayton Point, MA thermal electric cooling towers and stacks were imploded to make way for offshore wind component manufacturing and deployment operations. The facility will include an HVDC converter station, battery storage, and an energy education center. Notably absent are hydrogen (and oxygen) production equipment.

Outlines of the World’s largest oceanic garbage patches were added, sadly, to the OWEB Google Earth application.

World’s largest oceanic garbage patches

Caribbean Sea Garbage - 2017


11 April 19-World’s fastest hydrogen sensor could pave the way for clean hydrogen energy.

5 April 19- Environmental Business International’s EBI Online reports that “Renewables add 171 GW of generating capacity in 2018. Strong growth in renewable energy capacity continued in 2018 with global additions of 171 gigawatts (GW), according to new data released by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). The annual increase of 7.9% was bolstered by additions from solar and wind energy, which accounted for 84% of the growth. IRENA’s annual report, Renewable Capacity Statistics 2019, shows that while Asia accounted for 61% of total new renewable energy installations and grew installed capacity by 11.4%, growth was fastest in Oceania, where capacity rose by 17.7% in 2018. Africa’s 8.4% growth put it in third place just behind Asia. Nearly two-thirds of all new power generation capacity added in 2018 was from renewables, led by emerging and developing economies, the report concluded.” Of particular interest is Oceania’s increasing role in the energy-water-hydrogen nexus.

24 December 18- GoLocalProv News reports “RI General Assembly Members Call for Trump to Protect Ocean Monuments”.

12 December 18-Researchers Produce Hydrogen in pH Neutral Conditions” by Kenny Walter, R&D, references seawater feedstock.

28 November 18- Foerd attended the Blue Innovation Symposium at Salve Regina University, Newport, RI. With a theme of "The Ocean, Data and You", the symposium focused on data analytics, cybersecurity initiatives, and industry trends.

29-31 October 18- Foerd is session chair/speaker for "Ocean Energy Development and Utilization- Wave, Tidal and Ocean Thermal Energy" at World Congress of Ocean, Weihai, China.

22 October 18- Rectangular iceberg and improved ice analysis (movie).

27 September 18-2018 Arctic summertime sea ice minimum extent tied for sixth lowest on record”.

26 September 18-China sets new renewables target of 35 percent by 2030”.

7 September 18- Two models of the first low-noise, zero-emissions, hydrogen powered train started commercial service in Lower Saxony, Germany.

30 August 18-Catalyst Advance Could Lead to Economical Fuel Cells

10 August 18- Sir Richard Branson and two dozen Caribbean nations and territories announced, in Kingston, Jamaica, the creation of the Caribbean Climate-Smart Accelerator. Among Accelerator activities is restructuring Caribbean debt to free up cash for coastal defense projects that buffer climate change effects. Having oceanfront real estate in Jamaica, since 2002, Foerd proposed wave energy conversion projects to reduce the island’s dependence on foreign energy sources. Such works can contribute to reducing onshore wave action.

27 July 18- Green Car Congress reports thyssenkrupp company has introduced industrial-scale water electrolysis for large projects.

20 July 18- The ninth annual Rhode Island Energy, Environment, and Ocean Leaders Day occurred nine months after the eighth event (see 20 October 17) and with addition of the word "Ocean"- appropriate to accelerating issues of our water world. Director of U.S. Coastal Programs, URI Coastal Resources Center and Director of Extension Programs for Rhode Island Sea Grant Jennifer McCann emceed remarks by Host Senator Sheldon Whitehouse and RI Treasurer Seth Magaziner. SCAPE urban planner Kate Orff, Walton Family Foundation Environment Program Director Barry Gold, Distinguished Professor of Atmospheric Science and Director of the Penn State Earth System Science Center Dr. Michael E. Mann, and Alaska Senator Lisa Murkowski delivered keynote addresses. Additional insights were provided by RI Representatives David Cicilline and Jim Langevin. Breakout sessions encompassed how climate change affects public health, a renewable energy future, and the economic risks of climate change.

2 July 18- A first: “Rhode Island sues major oil companies over climate change”.

28 June 18- Foerd attended the Icons of Infrastructure- Advancing the Electrical Grid conference at the National Press Club- a frustrating (nuclear) and affirming (renewables) day covered low-cost energy storage to minimize curtailment of wind and solar power, artificial intelligence in the form of machine-learning algorithms for advanced power electronics, and even some discussion of hydrogen storage.

22 June 18- Car & Driver reports It Takes Two: Hyundai and Audi Pair Up for Hydrogen Project.

20-21 June 18- (See 5 September 14) A beautiful day before the Northeast Regional Planning Body Meeting, several attendees and Foerd fast ferried offshore to the Block Island Wind Farm. It’s first in USA. Meeting discussion covered potential offshore projects, Northeast Ocean Data Portal use, submerged paleocultural landscape research, and tribal priorities.

31 May 18- Companies take first steps to drill for oil in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge continues the track described in August 08- OWECO News Volume 1, Issue 1 PDF

30 April 18- Laboratory Equipment reports that Russia Launches World's First Floating Nuclear Power Plant. What could go wrong?

New Materials for Sustainable, Low-Cost Batteries use aluminum and propylene- possibly more environmentally compatible in marine applications than today’s batteries.

Growing 'Dead Zone' Confirmed by Underwater Robots in The Gulf of Oman exemplifies the global problem. OWECO has long proposed that ocean renewable energy may be used for water desalination and electrolysis to produce clean hydrogen, for fuel cells, and oxygen. Marine hydrokinetics can be ideal for pumping oxygen to dead zones.

10-11 March 18- Foerd is keynote speaker, about wave power and controlled interface with HVDC electric grids, at the All India Conference on Clean Energy with Smart Grid, The Institution of Engineers, Nagpur Local Centre.

12 January 18- Global average sea level rise forced an image change, in the OWECO web site Water section representing sea height change, from tea cup to coffee mug.

3-5 November 17- Foerd is session chair/speaker for "Ocean Energy and Environment" at World Congress of Ocean, Shenzhen, China.

26 October 17- “New science suggests the ocean could rise more- and faster- than we thought” further corroborates what Foerd, and others, have said for decades. The ocean renewable energy, hydrogen economy must more quickly accelerate.

20 October 17- The eighth annual Rhode Island Energy & Environmental Leaders Day, hosted by Senator Sheldon Whitehouse, seemed most dire (see 30 September 16). Again hosted in Rhode Island, saving much energy and participant time, the day included keynote address from Brookings Institution Senior Fellow Todd Stern, a Climate Panel including Senator Whitehouse and RI Governor Gina Raimondo, and another keynote address delivered by Sam Waterson, actor and board member of Oceana. After video remarks from RI Congressman David Cicilline, breakout sessions comprised three topics- “Harnessing the Economic Power of the Oceans: Rhode Island’s Progress Toward a Blue Economy” moderated by City of Providence Economic Director Mark Huang, “The Little State That Could: Update on Energy Innovation and Modernization Projects” moderated by National Grid Strategic Business, Policy and Evaluation Director Michael McAteer, and “Resilient RI: Adapting to Climate Change in the Ocean State” moderated by Coastal Resource Center and RI Sea Grant Community Planner/Coastal Management Extension Specialist Teresa Crean. After brief remarks by Senator Reed and RI Congressman Langevin, a final inspiring keynote was delivered by John Kerry, former Secretary of State and United States Senator. Senator Whitehouse’s closing remarks capped the unsettling day. A takeaway was to accelerate more environmentally compatible works, not fall behind despite partisan blocking, assured that international markets are increasing their investments in a cleaner energy economy.

August 17- OES Ocean Energy Systems Technology Collaboration Program is an intergovernmental collaboration between countries established by the IEA International Energy Agency. Its first joint reference paper for Task 10, Wave Energy Converter modeling verification and validation, examined a heaving sphere. OWECO’s 1978-1982 buoy was a heaving sphere until replaced by more efficient shapes.

Summer 17- (see Summer 2016) OWEB Ocean Wave Energy weB map transcription, onto Google Earth, is essentially complete. About 70% existing and proposed World HVDC electrical lines and plants are located. Gas lines require substantially more delineation. Foerd invites those, who might be Google Earth fans, to assist in completing this important but tedious project. Please contact Foerd directly (foerd@owec.com or 1-401-380-6906) if interested in volunteering to map your region. Training is provided via email.

11 May 17- “Researchers Devise New Technique to Eradicate Pollutants from Water” could carefully integrate with the “Pacific Ocean cleanup to start in 2018” and “Robots May Bring Reef Relief“.

20 April 17- (see 12 August 14) “Toyota’s Fuel Cell Truck Wins Kudos, But Trucking Industry Still Wary”

4-6 November 16- Foerd is session chair for “Discovering Sustainable Ocean Energy” at World Congress of Ocean, Qingdao, China.

19 October 16- US Department of Energy Oak Ridge National Laboratory researchers developed a process that adds carbon "nano-spikes" and copper to CO2 to transform it into ethanol.

30 September 16- The seventh annual Rhode Island Energy & Environmental Leaders Day, hosted by Senator Sheldon Whitehouse, continued tradition of valuable exchange (see June 15). Keynote address and panel discussion provided reality-based prognoses of present and projected dilemmas: grim and accelerating faster than anticipated. Solution scenarios were most focused on the State's offshore wind project and sustainable fisheries. Foerd again stated water management and hydrogen fuel cell applications should be topical- oxygen component may pump down to invigorate ocean dead zones. He left early, as the Day's tone sank in, but is buoyed by trench work of Senator Whitehouse, and others, through fields of time-wasting obstinacy.

September 16- Wave Energy Prize News, published by US Department of Energy, asks... "what developer wouldn’t be giddy with excitement to test a new technology in the nation’s premier wave-making facility containing more than 12 million gallons of fresh water? Answer: a deceased developer. Absence of salt water, or ocean water, requires accurate test factoring to deployment reality.

Summer 2016- (see 19 February 16) Inter-OWEB Ocean Wave Energy weB lanes, HVDC and gas corridors, and plants are further detailed in the OWEB GE Google Earth application. After several years GE development, including recent improvements, an important, color-coded, wave height layer application was suddenly halted by its institutional authors/hosts. Apparently data scrapers or other contributed to excessive bandwidth cost. Major back step cannot be envisioned from GE goal of 8-day wave height animations looping beneath OWEB blue line grids. Such regional precision enables more accurate estimates of local power and transmission. OWECO seeks application replacement.

2016 is continuing a trend of hottest years yet recorded.

19-20 May 16- Foerd is participant at CCISF China Chongqing International Investment and Global Sourcing Fair.

5-6 March 16- Foerd is keynote speaker, about wave energy and interconnecting HVDC electric grids, at the All India Seminar on Clean Energy, The Institution of Engineers, Nagpur Local Centre.

19 February 16- (see 23 June 14) The Google Earth wave height layer is becoming improved. Now it is properly aligned and relatively close views show color coded wave fields among OWEB arrays. Regularly updated data enables more precise wave field power estimates using the OWEB Map Power Output Calculator.

6-8 November 15- Foerd is speaker for "Ocean Renewable Energy Development and Utilization" at World Congress of Ocean, Qingdao, China.

14 October 15- "Toyota Aims to Nearly Eliminate Gasoline Cars by 2050" describes how some of the required actions are being considered. This big news more closely aligns OWECO's water/hydrogen cycling recommendations. We congratulate Toyota. H2 fuel cells are the way to go.

9 October 15- "Tackling a Long-Standing Automotive Hydrogen Storage Challenge" follows 8 October 15 description, "Cheap catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars", of well focused Sandia National Laboratories consortium work with solid-state hydrogen storage.

28 September 15- "Shell Withdraws from Arctic Exploration".

25 September 15- "Ballard Lands $17M Deal For Deployment of 300 Fuel Cell Buses in China". See also 29 May 13 entry.

30 August - 1 September 15- Foerd was speaker at GELS Global Economic Leaders Summit, Changchun, China. The GELS themes are "Global Technological Innovation & Cooperation" and "World Economic Restructuring & Upgrading".

22 July 15- "2015 on Track to Be Hottest Year Yet".

4 July 15- "Japanese car companies back hydrogen stations for fuel cells" and "BMW has a hydrogen-powered 5 Series". Germany and Japan have pioneered hydrogen powered vehicles since the 1970's. At that time, Japan had also started work with wave energy. Imagine!

24 June 15- Bloomberg's Eric Roston and Blacki Migliozzi assembled an interesting infographic about "What's Really Warming the World".

June 15- A disconnect of understanding about integrating marine hydrokinetics renewable energy, hydrogen production/storage, and water management is still prevalent. But it's getting closer to the table:

The 23 June Rhode Island Energy & Environmental Leaders Day was again inspiring (see 11 June 13). With common good sense and sensitivity, the heavy lifting from Rhode Island's perceptive Senators and Representatives was reported to be achieving results. The Day included special recognition of our host, Senator Whitehouse, for bringing attention to the oceans. He has now spoken 100 times about climate change issues on the Senate Floor. Rhode Island was also given kudos for initiating USA's first offshore wind farm. Sessions from "Faith Perspectives on Environmental Stewardship", and expressions about the Pope's Encyclical, mingled with "Corporate Sustainability: Spurring Innovation, Saving Money, and Reducing Emissions" and the Navy mandate for competitively priced "alternative" fuels. Rear Admiral Slates also commented on the desire for accurate estimates of SLR sea level rise as effecting port conditions and military ramification of new ice free zones. There is further need of lean, logistical methods for deploying renewables. Unfortunately, hydrogen infrastructure or its connection to SLR was not mentioned. Domestically, Citigroup alone is ramping up to spend $100 billion on renewables. Apparently, $1 trillion will be used for "the clean energy transition". Not so many years ago, Foerd lamented Asia's paltry renewable energy take-up. It was stated China now has approximately $89 billion renewable energy investment primarily in land, onshore, and offshore wind farms. Finally, the expression "true cost" was formally uttered by another, Bob Inglis- Executive Director of the Energy and Enterprise Initiative, who discussed "reasonable risk avoidance" and "getting the solution mindset started"!

Assumed was the 11 June seminar at University of Pennsylvania Kleinman Center for Energy Policy, "Accelerating Energy Storage- Policies for Facilitating Investment and Deployment", would include a session on hydrogen fuel cells. No. One takeaway suggests enough live transmission wire is now in place to be considered "storage" and that intelligent distribution may efficiently allocate electrons as needed to shifting regional loads. This kind of buffering ideal works nicely with Buckminster Fuller's global grid proposal. Net metering, peak shaving, demand side pricing signals such as carbon taxes, and other means can be incorporated to effect demand response as the world turns. While such manipulations increase use efficiencies, renewable energy storage remains important to the smart grid. Combination of these several methods with, for example, grid scale slow batteries- up to 2MW capacity placed near substations- can alleviate spatial distribution problems including over-generation. Though hydrogen industry representation was present, a speaker's statement that nuclear (pronounced "nuke-u-ler") energy has zero emissions affirmed the hydrogen highway is still damned to the horizon. By analogy with global HVDC high voltage direct current grids, intercontinental gas line installations may be particularly appropriate encircling high latitudes for keeping hydrogen cold while reducing large scale hydrogen transport distance to longitudinal feeders.

After a Tribal blessing, the 4 June regional meeting of "Ocean Planning in the Northeast", Mystic, CT, revealed significant progress with geospatial data synthesis. Priority is to monitor and evaluate health indicators including all variety of wildlife and aquatic vegetation, sand and gravel movement, hestoric and cultural resources, transportation, energy infrastructure, recreation, aquaculture, and more. Foerd noted the proprietary GIS geographic information system may not easily support public observational inputs. Understood is that GE Google Earth might be less stable platform for supporting deep data functions but perhaps a "lite" GE version, containing smaller, synthesized files, could be provided to the public. This really needs to be a world-around activity. OWECO would appreciate such data inclusions for its GE OWEB mapping project, now in its third year (see 23 June 14).

25 April 15- Oregon Sea Grant, OSU Oregon State University, and PMEC Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center video extolls LEG linear electrical generator simple virtues but none of the deficiencies. In the video, youngsters nearly duplicate one of Foerd’s 1979 LEG experiments. It’s an educational tool but promotes inefficient technology that Oregon has embraced since OSU Professor Wallace’s (dec.) special interest. US Department of Energy substantially funded a spin-off company, Oregon’s Columbia Power Technology, to rediscover LEG problems that OWECO cheaply experienced twenty years prior. LEG was also embraced by several European entities in the 2000’s.

30 March 15- "Eco Wave Power Establishes a Subsidiary in Suzhou" for building out their seawall-based technology.

26 March 15- "Desalination with nanoporous graphene membrane" and "Antarctica's Ice Shelves Thin, Threaten Significant Sea Level Rise".

18 March 15- "Overpumping groundwater contributes to rising sea levels".

16 March 15- "The melting of Antarctica was already really bad. It just got worse".

6 March 15- "China's wind farms can now produce more energy than all of America's nuclear plants".

11 February 15- VW is commended for revising direction toward hydrogen fuel cell development (see 8 September 14).

January/February 15- OWECO Outsight: Oregon State University researchers found a lower cost, cleaner method for producing nanoporous graphene. The material is fabricated with CO2 and has potential for increasing supercapacitor efficiency. Use of limonene orange peel oil and CO2 in plastic fabrication is discussed elsewhere on this site. In themselves these types of research intents are well focused. Further efforts, with more manufactured materials and processes, can approach enduring, elegant, and required synergies for carbon dioxide sequestration.

12 December 14- "Pollution Plan Pits U.S. Against China at Divided Talks".

10 December 14- "India Ducks China Energy Pledge, Plans Renewables Splurge".

"More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing 269,000 Tons Afloat at Sea". As well as effecting biota and habitat, some pieces could interfere MHK marine hydrokinetic operations.  Orbiscular, spaced-apart MHK bodies generally tend to deflect detritus more than, for example, "wave-eater" and hydraulic wave energy converters. Perhaps the latter could be filtrated to assist the plastic collection process.

"Exxon Foresees Abundant Oil, Gas"... to reserve uncombusted for specialty materials, processes, and future. Industry focus well applies to activity as "Burying Hydrogen Could Offer Energy Security". In such regard, OWECO congratulates California Fuel Cell Partnership and State of California on the dedication of its 10th hydrogen station in West Sacramento.

9 December 14- Keynote speaker John Englander, author of “High Tide on Main Street- Rising Sea Level and the Coming Coastal Crisis”, discussed the topic at the “Staying Afloat: Adapting Waterfront Business to Rising Seas and Extreme Storms” event at Salve Regina University, Newport, RI. Local speakers described storm tools and coastal resilience strategies.

3 December 14- Renewable Energy World reports "Germany’s biggest utility, E.ON is exiting the conventional energy market in favor of a new business model based on renewables, intelligent grid systems, energy management and other services".

2 December 14- "India may set bigger climate change targets before Obama's R-Day visit".

24 November 14- "New Plastic That Disappears When You Want… and Reuters special report about USA East coast, "Water's Edge, the crisis of rising sea levels". 

12 November 14- U.S.-China Joint Announcement on Climate Change and Clean Energy Cooperation FACT SHEET. Big but needs to happen sooner than 2030. Other things to cut relate to now comparable consumer product packaging. Both and all countries must increase material recycling rates. Of note, Beijing factories were turned off and discernibly blue skies permeated the Presidents' meetings.

November 2014- US DOE Water Power Program awarded $6.5 million to the WEC Wave Energy Conversion Prize Competition administration team.

17 October 14- Foerd was Offshore Renewable Energy speaker in the China International Diving, Salvage and Offshore Summit portion of World Congress of Ocean, Dalian. For several years, OWECO has concentrated on Asia as it contains rapidly industrialized 51% humanity within a 4,000 mile diameter circle. The presentation, entitled "Toward Power, Water, and Climate Management Using Ocean Wave Energy", connects these large issues. It seems proactivity is beginning to stick. For example, "China's War on Pollution" informs of some measures coming to the fore. Yet  increased consumerism and pollution were noted since prior visits. Near top floor hotel room viewed 1.5 mile distant stacks spewing 24-7 brown. As usual, all personal recyclables were pressed into stretch bag and brought back.

October 14- The young engineers in the Exxon-Mobil commercial ask, "Who's going to... turn ocean waves into power." Exxon and Mobil were among 35 oil companies to which Foerd communicated OWEC® technology during early 1980's.

17 September 14- Fuel Cell Dispatch News reports "Members of Congress and DOE Tout Importance of Fuel Cell Technology". There seems more comprehension of the relation to renewables- wind and solar- yet not to marine hydrokinetics and water management.

8 September 14- "VW Says Fuel-Cell Cars Doomed to Struggle Beyond Japan". A two year misstep tenaciously clings to improving hybrid diesel efficiency of its elegant XL1 model. Longer term perspective suggests much of VW's excellent peripheral work can be well applied to hydrogen operating systems.

5 September 14- Of local interest, and relating to 31 July 13 below, Mintz Levin reports "The Army Corps of Engineers granted Deepwater Wind LLC final federal approval September 5 to begin construction of a 30 MW offshore wind farm about three miles off the coast of Rhode Island. The Block Island Wind Farm is expected to begin construction next summer, and placed in service in 2016, at which point it will generate over 125,000 MWh annually. Federal approval is still pending for a proposed 21-mile subsea cable to bring the electricity to the mainland, with the Interior Department’s Bureau of Ocean Energy Management expected to grant transmission approval in the coming weeks."

4 September 14- "Sports car that runs on salt water..." short video describes differential membrane technology. This fuel type skips desalination, electrolysis, and storage of ocean water produced hydrogen.

3 September 14- "EPA Approves Nation’s First Underground Injection Permits for Carbon Sequestration". US Department of Energy will spend up to $1.68 billion on the project. True cost will be far greater when including maintenance and future remediation.

21 August 14- "ABB launches world's most powerful underground and subsea power transmission cable system" Just one pair of the new cables could supply all the power needs of Paris..."

19 August 14- US Patent 8,810,056 issued for OWEC® using improved counter-rotary electrical generators, controls, and buoy shape.

12 August 14- "Copper Foam Turns CO2 Into Useful Chemicals".

12 August 14- Toyota’s Bob Carter comments about fuel cell vehicles.

8 August 14- OWECO Outsight: "Modeling to Unlock the Potential of Wave Energy Farms" describes a software tool for assisting wave energy developers "to better understand how different technologies will behave in certain circumstances" and "to identify the best designs for ocean wave energy devices at selected sites." Opinion: It's like saying ships must change shape, during travel from one region to another, and attempts to justify differing concepts from over 175 wave energy entities. On and nearshore device designs may vary according to certain circumstances at selected sites but offshore, and to deeper ocean, all scales of wave dynamics are generally similar. A singular, scalable design may apply to worlwide offshore sites.

7 August 14- "Japan and US to develop fuel-cell submarine". Likely, onboard electrolyzers are used. Perhaps deeper ocean OWEB fueling stations could provide for unlimited range.

7 August 14- "Black & Veatch to build hydrogen fueling network".

31 July 14- (See Summer 10) OWECO's fourteenth engineering intern used Magsoft Flux to refine electromechanical and electromagnetic flux paths/densities of a new counter-rotating electrical generator. Several design variants were refined in CAD models, animations, and report. The Power Output Calculator was prepared for web publication with the OWEB Map. MB15

30 July 14- "Dismantling Germany's nuclear industry, piece by piece" discusses some of the true costs and relates to 29 July 14 "Worldwide Water Shortage by 2040"

29 July 14- General Mills foods manufacturer became “the first major food and beverage company to promise to implement long-term science-based targets to cut emissions.”

28 July 14- "Not in my backyard: U.S. sending dirty coal abroad" is example of fourth paragraph on OWECO's About Us page.

"While world is veering to renewables, India is focusing on nuclear power". Akin to 21 April 14 article concerning China.

Several media outlets published" East Coast Flooding Increasing as Coastal Sea Levels Rise" about NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency report on USA "Sea Level Rise and Nuisance Flood Frequency Changes around the United States".

27 July 14- MIT researchers developed a material that converts 85% sunlight to steam.

25 July 14- "Study shows how to power California with wind, water and sun" article's second reader comment states, "Next wave power and car fuel cells are scams that are NOT efficient or cost effective and never will be because of basic physics, economics they can't overcome."

22 July 14- "World Breaks Monthly Heat Record, Twice".

3 July 14- "India Plans Large-Scale Floating Solar PV Plant" primarily due to land cost, claims of 50% better efficiency than land-based solar, and thoughts that such a "carpet" would reduce water evaporation. No mention of salt clouding, peripheral cost, or the waves that beat about and below such installation. Solar is but one contributor to ocean wave generation. To smother these waves dampens the resource. Solar panels, thin films, and even paints are more appropriately used as hybrid elements on platforms of primary drivers such as marine hydrokinetics or wind turbines. Perhaps  direct solar to hydrogen output techniques are applicable.

1 July 14- Three items: University of Southern California described the potential of an inexpensive, organic battery, Massachusetts Institute of Technology News reported on low cost membranes for separating oil and water, and R&D magazine published "Plastic debris widespread on ocean surface" ("ocean surface" = hydroface, the primarily hydrogen difference between water and air).

23 June 14- (See 8 January 14) All OWEB line work is transposed onto Google Earth.  Majority OWEB and country HVDC/gas lines are shown in the 51% humanity circle. Some mooring examples are complete. Pentaxial vertices need ironing out and substantial sleuthing is required for remaining global coastal infrastructure connections.  

18 June 14- OWECO congratulates US President Obama for supporting expansion of the Remote Islands Marine National Monument from 87,000 square miles to nearly 782,000 square miles. We are accordingly adjusting the Google Earth OWEB grid.

9 June 14- Silly waste of plastic, with a kind of androgynous innuendo, and a more utilitarian container concept from Coca-Cola.

8 June 14- World Oceans Day

4 June 14- "Did China just outdo Obama on climate action?"

Spring 14- OWECO engineering intern authored a systems overview of OWEC® technology operating in deep water. KS14

30 May 14- "Desalination Lets Israel Shrug Off Drought" addresses first component of the "hydrogen economy"- providing purified water.

28 May 14- Eight US states recently signed MOU Memorandum of Understanding to put 3.3 million hydrogen fuel cell vehicles into use by 2025. Research status, infrastructure development, and policy were discussed at the Providence, Rhode Island Department of Administration. Some speakers arrived in hydrogen vehicles!

21 May 14- Fuel Cell Dispatch News reported that US Department of Energy awarded funding for six hydrogen storage projects.

8 May 14- Several news outlets reported that Honda is bottling water from hydrogen car emissions! Check the video - the vision is becoming real.

Climate Change Business News article: "California invests $46.6 million in hydrogen refueling. Under the state’s Alternative and Renewable Fuel Vehicle and Technology Program, the California Energy Commission will invest $46.6 million in the further development of public hydrogen refueling stations throughout the state. The new round of funding is going to eight organizations—Air Liquide Industrial US LP, First Element Fuel Inc., HyGen Industries LLC, the Institute of Gas Technology, ITM Power Inc., Linde LLC, Hydrogen Technology & Energy Corp. (HTEC), and Ontario CNG Station Inc.—that are developing 13 hydrogen fueling stations in northern California and 15 stations in southern California. The state already has nine hydrogen fueling stations in operation and another 18 under development. The California Energy Commission has a goal of establish a 100-station network to support the commercialization of fuel cell-powered vehicles in the state."

7 May 14- Melting ice sheets. The 53m SLR statement seems high.

6 May 14- USA National Climate Assessment is available. One point suggests electricity demand is expected to increase along with HVAC heating, ventilation, air conditioning installations. Equal and opposite chasing tails as additional heat is generated when powering environmental conditioners. Foerd recommends international air months having incentives for using intelligent, passive, or  low technology micro-climate management techniques. For starters, don't buy it, keep it off if you have it, open windows where possible, endure to when again is achieved more equitable balance.

2 May 14- Toyota's Gas driven LEG linear electric generator...

22-25 April 14- Foerd was Keynote Speaker (graphics not shown in video), roundtable leader, and interviewee at Power & Electricity World Asia 2014, Singapore.

21 April 14- "China to Ramp Up Nuclear Power, Renewables".

10 April 14- R&D magazine reported Penn State research: "Sunlight generates hydrogen in new porous silicon".

23 March 14- IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change will soon release a third installment of a report focusing on climate solution scenarios. Foerd proposed such activity at the 2002 Climate Science Workshop.

7 March 14- Energy Live News reported that United Kingdom and China “signed a £20 million agreement to work together in developing new low carbon methods of manufacturing processes and technologies, urban living and offshore renewable energy production in the two nations. Under the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU), both the countries will each commit £10 million of “matched resources”, with approximately £6.6 million available each year. Energy Minister Greg Barker welcomed the program saying: “Investing in innovation and science is essential for both the UK and China to address energy supply issues and meet emissions targets as well as drive long-term economic growth. In the UK we have ring-fenced a science budget worth £4.6 billion per year and invested £29 million in joint projects with China."

6 March 14- "Asia Pacific's Ocean Energy Outlook" describes Foerd's upcoming presentation at Power & Electricity World Asia 2014, Singapore.

8 January 14- (See August 13) Foerd is reminded of a mother's knitting habit as 75% OWEB, more country gas and HVDC High Voltage Direct Current lines, and Buckminster Fuller's HVDC Global Grid are transcribed onto GE Google Earth. Each of 100 dots representing 1% human population distribution, a 4,000 mile (6,440 km) diameter circle surrounding 51% population, World Exclusive Economic Zones, major ship routes/ports, cetacean routes, reefs, and currents are being assimilated. GE seems to have added more wave data links but still omits wave period. So apparent is need for a worldaround stop motion wave height and period layer. The evolving GE kml file would feature updated GIF file animations from known sources as NOAA/NCEP and Scripps.

10 October 13- Foerd's ASiANPOWER article- "How China is managing a critical crossroad" (See 17 June 13; 5 February 13; 17 September 12).

23-25 September 13- Foerd was Forum Chair for Renewable Ocean Energy at World Congress of Ocean, Hangzhou, China.

9 September 13- "China's Air Quality is Seeping into the United States". See OWECO's "About Us" page and August 08 OWECO News (PDF). The "Us" is "We", as in, "are all in this together".

9 September 13- ABB has entered a US$100-million research and development program with Statoil for finding solutions to long distance, deepwater power transmission, distribution, and conversion systems. Designed to power and control subsea pumps and gas compressors at depths of 3,000 meters, and over vast distances, "the agreement is seen as an important step on the path to develop complete subsea oil and gas producing facilities". CO2 sequestration operations? Seems ideal for marine renewable energy and hydrogen functions.

3 September 13- Japan is to build a frozen wall around the Fukushima nuclear plant in an attempt to stop radioactive water leaks.

August 13- (See 4 July 13) Foerd previously requested GE Google Earth to superpose kinetic ocean waves on the hydroface. GE did a great job that includes Ocean Observation links such as wave height. Periods are still needed and now being determined is whether the beautiful, but generic, swirling whorls of wave procession patterns could be modified to reflect at least near real-time dominant direction. Scheduled updates would be taken from wide area wave reporting maps (as links from OWEB Map). Marine spatial planning is further synthesized using GE underwater views and drawing tools. They enable depiction, in the water column, of mooring lines connecting OWEBs to seafloor anchorage. GE agents provide real time data including, for example, precise marine mammal, school, and vessel location/path. Combining these factors together in the integrated Google Earth platform helps holistic systems comprehension and planning.

31 July 13- OWECO Outsight: $3.8 million won Deepwater Wind New England, LLC exclusive auction lease of nearly 165,000 acres (256 square miles) off Rhode Island and Massachusetts. OWECO participated in some pre-lease dialogues and congratulates Deepwater, BOEM Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, local government, and the local fishing industry for their perseverance. $23/acre includes the water column above each acre- such a deal! As template for further offshore renewable energy leases along US eastern seaboard, however, the BOEM process seemingly excludes co-siting other types of compatible renewable ocean energy systems and pretty much kills the idea of Wave Hubs (electrical "socket" infrastructure provided for MHK marine hydrokinetic sea trials). Could there be set-aside of an acre or two or must companies, like OWECO, sub-lease from Deepwater? Analogy is drawn to the initially malleable land/incentive policies that brought the Union Pacific transcontinental railroad to fruition. Messy.

13 July 13- China cancels $6 billion uranium plant after protest. Inspiring, yet reasons of protest must be imbibed in the national energy plan.

10 July 13- "The US House of Representatives voted for a bill that would slash federal spending on renewable energy and energy efficiency research. The bill, which passed 227-198 in the Republican-dominated House, approved $30.4 billion for Energy Department programs."

4 July 13- (See Summer 12) 50% OWEB is transcribed onto Google Earth . After decades with maps and charts, and years with Google Earth, most appreciated is precise granularity of the latter that provides an integrated platform for more detailed manufacture, trip, deployment, and transmission planning.

25 June 13- President Obama Georgetown Speech

17 June 13- Foerd's ASiANPOWER article- "What island sentinels predict about renewable energy grid reliability" (See 10 October 13; 5 February 13; 17 September 12).

11 June 13- Foerd attended Rhode Island Energy and Environmental Leaders Day at the US Capitol. Hosted by RI Senator Whitehouse, this year's speakers among others included Vice President Gore, RI Senator Reed, MA Senator Warren, CA Representative Waxman, Energy Secretary Moniz, Deputy Assistant to the President Zichal, and President Beinecke of the Natural Resources Defense Council. A reception was hosted by RI Representatives Langevin and Cicilline. The event highlighted Rhode Island's lead development of Ocean SAMP Special Area Management Plans. One SAMP activity focuses on environmental assimilation/impact of ocean energy constructions. The Senators appreciate an environmentally informed approach to ocean, water, and  energy management.

10-13 June 13- (See 17-20 Sep 81) Energy Ocean 2013 conference convened near Providence, Rhode Island. Foerd spoke at first three Energy Ocean events, 2004 - 6, and works in State since 1975. A conference dinner occurred one quarter mile from where he constructed OWEC® working models.

June 13- Ocean News & Technology reports:

(See November 89) OWECO applied for US Departments funding since 1979. Department of Transportation US Coast Guard early lead in the marine hydrokinetics sector is appreciated. OWECO's 1989 SBIR Small Business Innovation Research contract was the first SBIR award for wave energy conversion. Work developed offshore Aids to Navigation power applications.

29 May 13- Ballard Power Systems and Azure Hydrogen Corporation announced their Memorandum of Understanding to further develop zero emissions, fuel cell buses for China public transit. Excellent!

24 May 13- Atmospheric carbon dioxide reached 400 PPM- 40% increase in 100 years.

7 February 13- OWECO Outsight: The Power magazine article "States, Utilities Ask Fed. Court for Expedited Suspension of Nuclear Waste Fees" seems to hide essential fact: We all pay, anyway. Combined with coal plant requirements, such activity certainly increases water demand in an already highly stressed environment.

5 February 13- Foerd's ASIANPOWER article- "India's offshore powerhouse revealed" (See 10 October 13; 17 June 13; 17 September 12).

28 January 13- OWECO Outsight: The R&D magazine headline says, "Countries Worldwide Propose to Build 1,200 New Coal Plants". 75% of these are planned for China and India and represent more than 60% of USA present coal-fired capacity. Same day: "Ford, Daimler, Nissan to research hydrogen cars". If the hydrogen is not produced from hydrocarbons then perhaps we are beginning to make sustainable progress.

11 January 13- OWECO Outsight: The NCADAC National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee draft report is open for public comment. Louisiana Representative Steve Scalise, who heads the Republican Study Committee, said in a statement that it is clear Americans will not tolerate any new climate policies: "Even President Obama acknowledged that our focus right now should be on putting folks back to work and growing the economy - not climate change." Tomfoolery. Renewable energy take-up accommodates many new jobs and invigorates conventional sectors- if willing to make clean breaks.

27 December 12- OWECO Outsight: The headline says, (Philippine) "DOE Eyes Nuclear Power". How unfortunate. Philippines is among select countries with excellent wave resource relative to population. Its "slenderness ratio" (engineering term typically describing length:width of columns and beams) to wave fronts is among the World's most enviable.

December 12- Google Earth is template for completing preliminary assessment and transcription of India's wave resources, water depths, coastal and feeder electric/gas infrastructure, and MPA marine protected areas.

October 12- Foerd returned to India (see August 2008 PDF) and was guest of honor at the All India Seminar On Clean Energy & Energy Conservation. This region, including inland, comprises over one quarter world population.

17 September 12- Foerd's ASiANPOWER article- "Exploring ocean wave energy for climate management" (See 5 February 13; 17 June 13; 10 October 13)

September 12- US patent was applied for a modular, self-referencing ocean wave energy converter using improved counter-rotary electrical generators, variable ballast, controls, and large parts shaped for both hydrodynamic and transportation utility.

Summer 12- (See 4 July 13) OWEB Ocean Wave Energy weB map transcription, onto Google Earth, reveals anticipated geodetic anomalies- particularly at major pentagonal vertices lacking flatness of hexagonal grids. Buckminster Fuller averaged the difference between these, and their midpoints, to evenly distribute 5% spherical “error” throughout the Dymaxion Map. For OWEB, the vertices render sufficiently large nodes to apply hexagonal and equilateral triangular grids. At scale, the percent error is minimal and evenly distributed throughout open spaces between OWEBs. Google Earth inclusion of MPA Marine Protected Areas generally affirms OWECO's offshore/deeper ocean technology venues. The OWEB grid can be adapted to form navigation barriers about expanding or new MPAs. OWECO engineering intern GM13 produced electrical generator 3D CAD drawings and a component donation was received- thank you, Chesterton!

16 July 12- "Fuel Cell Treats Wastewater and Harvests Energy"

4 May 12- Foerd attended an Ocean Energy Workforce Development Summit at New Bedford Whaling Museum, MA. Keynote was delivered by US Representative Keating and topics covered European maintenance procedures, training methods, and industry needs. Former OWEC® Energy partner addressed some wave energy industry requirements.

April 12- Mass High Tech recognized OWECO as one of the region's top cleantech suppliers, researchers, and producers.

January 12- OWECO Outsight: The Worldwide Universities Network Research Mobility Program is investigating approaches for controlling global climate with solar radiation management. Participants cost-compared techniques, such as using reflecting aerosol particles in Earth's upper atmosphere with carbon dioxide reduction, and their effects on sea level rise. Basic models do not yet include several factors and currently seem an expensive fantasy relative to more direct water management practices.

Autumn 11- Foerd was session chair and presented OWECO technology at South Korea and China seminars. This region, including inland, comprises over one third world population.

August 11- Updated generator, ballast, and control elements were incorporated in the module design.

June 11- Additional global wave reporting sites were published to the Refined OWEB Map.

17-19 May 11- Foerd attended the OceanTech Expo at the Newport Yachting Center, Rhode Island. Topics included ocean instrumentation, maritime security, salvage and recovery, and underwater vehicles.

14 December 10- (See 2 December 09) Foerd attended the Argyle Forum on “Leadership in Utilities” at the Princeton Club, New York, NY.

28 October 10- (See Summer 10) OWECO presentation was featured at Wave Energy in the Mediterranean Seminar in Kalkara, Malta. About 7% world population is proximate to the Mediterranean Sea and practical wave energy conversion could start with its islands. In preparation, seasonally adjusted wave energy increase was noted in comparison with 2005 Sicily presentation assessment. Between the largest wave tank and very energetic ocean waves, such as at UK's Wavehub device testing facility, the Mediterranean may become a "WEC test bed", or "nursery". As well as providing power, data from demonstrably proven WEC wave energy converters helps advance proof-of-concept. This approach may reduce error cost before full-on oceandustrial deployments. BW-PA

28 September 10- Foerd participated in the Massachusetts Clean Energy Industry Economic and Workforce Development Roundtable, New Bedford, MA. Focus was on local development of wind turbine assembly and deployment industries.

Summer 10- (See September 06) Mediterranean Sea wave energy applications and system engineering were initiated with international partners. BW-PA

(See 31 July 14) OWECO engineering intern used Opera software to explore basic magnetic flux paths/densities of a new electrical generator design. AM12

July 10- OWEC® article was published in Ship&Offshore magazine.

June 10- OWECO is pleased to be accepted into the Environmental Business Cluster of the Autodesk Clean Tech Partner Program. Autodesk, a leading provider of superior design and analysis software, recognizes a critical need and contributes toward efficient solutions in the renewable energy space. Its timely and focused initiative enables small businesses, such as OWECO, to virtually refine products before construction thereby saving time and materials waste. Thank you, Autodesk!

3 June 10- Foerd participated in NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers Association meeting, Rosslyn, VA, to discuss NEMA’s new Marine Renewable Energy Section. Former OWEC® Energy partner also participated.

2 December 09- (See 11 December 08) Foerd attended the Argyle Forum on Leadership in Utilities at the Harmonie Club, New York, NY.

2-3 November 09- Foerd presented OWEC® technology at the Ocean Power Conference and workshop, Wave Energy Centre, Lisbon, Portugal. Several European developers, research consortia, and Wave Hub Project personnel showcased innovative technologies.

30 June-1 July 09- Foerd participated in the 2nd International Wave Energy Summit, Hilton London Kensington Hotel.

15 June 09- (See 21-23 June 06) Foerd attended a Minerals Management Service meeting at the Energy Ocean Conference, Rockport, Maine.

8 May 2009- Foerd’s old friend, Ted Flanigan, published an article about OWECO in Ecomotion Network News. Ted began environmental initiatives in grade school. Pre- first Earth Day, 1970, he helped establish our school recycling program- busting bottles in bins, litter cleanup, and raising awareness. He remains true to the cause, throughout, and continues an impactful career. Ted’s company, EcoMotion, works with cities, corporations, campuses on energy and environmental initiatives. His team designed and implemented programs, developed inventories and climate action plans, and forged detailed energy plans to save energy and money. EcoMotion has been expert in solar design, scoping, financial analysis, project management, and monitoring results. EcoMotion has worked for cities like Santa Monica, Burbank, and Anaheim, California for seven years, and currently serves municipal, corporate, and campus clients with solar from coast to coast.

13 January 09- (See Summer 2008) The Daily News of Newburyport, MA reported deployment of “the first wave-powered energy converter on the East Coast”. OWECO former partner “relates the new technology to that of a popular flashlight now on the market that is shaken to generate power. The power is generated by moving magnets inside of a coil of wires, therefore generating electricity flow.” Drawings resemble OWEC® Inception. Technology is derivative of OWECO’s 1978-1982 wave powered LEG linear electric generator. When the linear inductor shake flashlight first appeared, 2002. Foerd compared it to the OWECO precedent.

11 December 08- Foerd attended the Argyle Forum on Leadership in Utilities at the Princeton Club, New York, NY.

19 November 08- As a member of USTAG US Technical Advisory Group for the International Electro-Technical Commission’s Technical Standards Committee 114 on Marine Energy Systems, Foerd participated with proceedings at NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory- National Wind Technology Center, Boulder, CO.

August 08- OWECO News Volume 1, Issue 1 PDF

31 July 08- "Tide is slowly rising in interest in ocean power" Mass High Tech.

25-26 April 08- Foerd attended the Brown Forum for Enterprise Environmental Sustainability Conference, Brown University, Providence, RI.

21 April 08- Foerd received a personal tour of the large, multi-directional wave tank at Ohmsett, U.S. NWS Earle, Leonardo, NJ.

17-18 April 08- See August 08 PDF, page 5. Foerd attended the Global Marine Renewable Energy Conference, New York City.

1 April 08- US Patent 7,352,073 issued for OWEC® using counter-rotary electrical generators, variable ballast, and large parts shaped for both hydrodynamic and transportation utility.

18 March 08- Rhode Island Congressman Patrick Kennedy and Chief of Staff George Zainyeh visited OWECO for an overview of marine hydrokinetics.

4-6 March 08- Foerd was delegate at WIREC Washington International Renewable Energy Conference, Washington, DC. Co-hosts included the White House, U.S. Departments of State, Agriculture, Interior, Commerce, Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Agency for International Development. USA President Bush’s pronouncement for a “nuke-u-lar renaissance” drew attention from inspiring statements and substantial decarbonization pledges by international entities.

28 February 08- Foerd attended the Brown (University) Forum for Enterprise conference on “Green Technology: Science, Innovation and Enterprise in the Region” at the Rhode Island Convention Center.

9-10 February 08- See August 08 PDF, page 3. Foerd was a keynote speaker at COGEN-2008, Nagpur, India.

1 January 08- Some of Foerd’s interview comments were included in Massachusetts SouthCoast Business Bulletin article, “R.I. signs $45M wave energy agreement”.

December 07- (See September 06) OWEC® Energy, Inc. was transferred and renamed by former partner. The new company was declared as founded September 06.

30-31 October 07- See August 08 PDF, page 2. Foerd attended the USIBA US-India Renewable Energy Summit in Washington, DC. Convened in the US Capitol Building and Library of Congress, Indian participants included India Prime Minister M. Singh, Minister of State New and Renewable Energy V. Mutiemwar, and Chairman and Managing Director of India Power Finance Corporation, Ltd. Dr. V.K. Garg.

Autumn 07- OWEC® Energy was a finalist in the RI STAC Science & Technology Advisory Council business plan competition.

(See June 06-May 07) URI Ocean Engineering student team constructed an overhead wave tank test rig for supporting an upside down OWEC® shaft and buoy. The arrangement permits dry swap-out of electrical generator components. Several design factors were not considered by the unsupervised team. Buoy quality and insufficient tolerance between moving parts produced marginal tank test results. SM9

23-25 October 07- Foerd was a keynote speaker and panelist at the NRJRUP Ultra Peripheral Regions renewable energy conference, Fort-de-France, Martinique. President of the Martinique Regional Council, Alfred Marie-Jean, presided.

March 2007- A consulting electrical engineer developed an OWEC® Power Output Calculator as part of OWEC® Energy. KD11

11 January 07- Following several months of internet conferences, Foerd participated with US “Minerals Management Service Stakeholder Meeting for Alternative Energy and Alternate Use on the OCS” (outer continental shelf), Boston, MA. (See 25 May 06)

14-15 December 06- Foerd participated in the “Challenges for wave energy technology” seminar at NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology Centre for Ships and Ocean Structures, Trondheim. In tribute to Professor Emeritus Johannes Falnes, and including early WEC developers and educators, discussion focused on technical features as resonant tuning, modular systems, and barriers to implementation.

November 06- OWEC® Energy partner presented OWEC® with Foerd at Dalhousie University wave energy seminar, Halifax, Canada.

September 06- (See January 02) OWECO formed OWEC® Energy, Inc. with new business partner. WS
Get magazine published a piece about Foerd’s mission.

22 July 06- OWECO tries to involve diverse aspects of pending energy use scenarios. With general interest in energy issues at an all-time high, several conference workshops are becoming more frequent across many connecting disciplines. Nuclear and growth of coal technologies lead to topic descriptions as: "The resurgence of coal as the mainstay of fossil fuel in the US and globally has further increased the substantial volumes of Coal Combustion Products (CCP) that are being produced. In the US, Coal Combustion Products (CCP) are the fourth biggest quantity mineral supply produced. How to manage the utilization and disposal of these products while developing strategies to maximize opportunities and reduce risk in relation to regulatory constraints is the focus of this conference."

The last sentence is quite telling. In addition to seeing the movie and perhaps purchasing the book, "An Inconvenient Truth", collated by Al Gore, Foerd recommends viewing the Discovery Channel's Global Warming: What You Need to Know", with Tom Brokaw. Eastern Standard Time airings are: 23 July @ 12:00 AM, 29 July @ 02:00 PM, 30 July @ 10:00 AM.

July 06- (See July 80) Foerd proposed a Marine Hydrokinetics Museum- MHK Museum. The museum's intent is for coalescing and displaying MHK hestory, since the 1800's, in the form of patents, patent models (if still existing from USPTO US Patent and Trademark Office storage), drawings, donated working models, components, and possibly prototypes, ephemera, articles, etc. Data troves are available from industry founders, some of whom are twilighting, who might feel "relieved" to at least see their efforts professionally archived for future reference.

June 06-May 07- See March-August 06- A local, part-time engineering student intern examined the OWEC® module base connector design. Connector permits independent 2 or 3-way module attachments. Analytical software showed materials graduated stress locations from applied loads. JB8

21-23 June 06- (See 26-28 April 05) Foerd presented OWEC® technology, water desalination, and hydrogen/oxygen production at the third annual Energy Ocean conference, San Diego, CA.

25 May 06- Foerd attended MMS Minerals Management Service meeting, Dedham, MA, concerning New England offshore renewable energy development. Representatives of NREL National Renewable Energy Laboratory, various New England energy and fishery groups, and the public participated in the discussion.

March-August 06- (See September 05-January 06) Engineering student intern used NISA software to refine buoy boundary layer laminar flow, velocity, and pressure studies. Final selection of a biconical spheroid buoy shape trades-off volume displacement for smooth flow acceleration. Same force is achieved with smaller size buoy. Intern used MSC Patran to perform mooring and truss analysis of one, three, six, ten, and fifteen connected OWEC® modules. Several static cases were combined to show truss maximum stress points. VH7

11 January 06- Foerd attended the USA Minerals Management Service Regional Stakeholder Meeting, Boston, MA, to discuss Outer Continental Shelf Alternative Energy and Alternative Use Program.

24 September 05- Foerd presented OWEC® technology, water desalination, and hydrogen/oxygen production at Istituto Nazionale di Bioarchitettura, Messina, Italy.

September 05-January 06- (See July-August 05) Engineering student intern generated OWEC® module 2D and 3D CAD drawings and buoy studies. Seven buoy shapes center of gravity, buoyancy center position, and buoyancy force were generally considered as a function of water height. Hydrodynamic properties during the buoy up and down stroke were examined. Refinement of buoy/shaft voids and weight distribution determined natural at rest positions approximately 35 degrees from vertical- the tetrahedron edge angle. MM6

July-August 05- (See June-August 02) Engineering student intern explored fluid interactions of an upwardly tapered conical buoy having rounded ends. FT5

26-28 April 05- (See 28-29 June 04) Foerd presented OWEC® technology, water desalination, and hydrogen/oxygen production at the second annual Energy Ocean conference, Washington, DC Convention Center.

28-29 June 04- Foerd presented OWEC® electrical generating technology, water desalination, and hydrogen/oxygen production at the first annual Energy Ocean conference, The Breakers, Palm Beach, Florida.

June 04- US patent was applied for a modular, self-referencing ocean wave energy converter using counter-rotary electrical generators, variable ballast, and large parts shaped for both hydrodynamic and transportation utility.

3-5 December 02- As IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change technical reviewer, Foerd participated in "U.S. Climate Change Science Program: Planning Workshop for Scientists and Stakeholders", Washington D.C. He suggested IPCC experts begin modeling effects of renewable energy, water cycling, and fuel cell storage solution scenarios.

June-August 02- (See March-August 00) Expensive fluid software, coupled with another sharp engineering student intern from France, enabled basic pressure and stress analysis of buoy, shaft, and buoyancy chamber in various sinusoidal wave field boundary meshes. Buoy shape is vertical cylinder having hemispherical ends. CB4

January 02- OWECO and a first business partner submitted a Small Business Innovation Research proposal to the US Navy. SC

March-August 2000- OWECO hosted first of several French engineering student interns. Displacement, flow, and acceleration of five buoy shapes were calculated under differing wave conditions. A report suggested that, having same volumes, a biconical spheroid shape may provide most force. Various flow softwares were compared. FE3

December 96- Wave energy trivia: With introduction of pictorial USA license plates in December 1996, the “Ocean State”, Rhode Island adapted a breaking wave graphic to augment its distinctive boat anchor. Foerd imagines that Division of Motor Vehicles designers took inspiration, from old plates, and happened upon his 1980 “Waves” moniker- the first year that “vanity” plates were offered. Peoples’ waves were returned with a horizontal, rippling gesture suggesting water waves. Some folks thought the vehicle was associated with memories of the women’s branch of the United States Naval Reserve during World War II. The blank wave plate includes the appropriately colored registration sticker. In 2019, the RI Senate spent their time debating license plate graphics and, despite additional cost, the wave will be retired.

1994- The Ocean Wave Energy Co. web site was established.

May 90- OWEC® linear/rotary converter produced electricity and computer data from mechanically simulated waves. A report was prepared.

10 May 90- OWEC® slide show was presented at Shea High School, Pawtucket, RI.

November 89- After several applications, over ten years, the first USA federal SBIR Small Business Innovation Research ocean wave energy conversion contract was awarded to OWECO. DOT US Coast Guard considered wave energy for replacing diesel to power Aids to Navigation.

17 September 87- OWEC® slide show was presented at Henry Barnard School, Providence, RI.

9 June 87- US Patent 4,672,222 issued for the Ocean Wave Energy Converter using linear/rotary converters, flywheels, and commercial generators.

2 September 86- In a ceremony at RI State Capitol, RI Governor Edward DiPrete presented Citation to Ocean Wave Energy Company as a State Award Winner in the 1986 National Awards for Energy Innovation Program.

2 July 86- Foerd attended “The Future of the World’s Oceans” symposium at URI University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography. RI Governor Edward DiPrete greeted participants, RI Senator Claiborne Pell convened, and former NBC reporter and author Edwin Newman moderated the agenda. Panelists included Drs. Dixy Lee Ray, John A. Knauss, John A. Gulland, and Kenji Okamura. Stansfield Turner, Cecil J. Olmstead, and author Willard Bascom rounded out the group. One of his seminal books, “Waves and Beaches: The Dynamics of the Ocean Surface” simplifies comprehension of complex processes.

8 May 86- OWEC® slide show was presented at URI Graduate School of Oceanography, Narragansett, RI.

March 86- US patent was applied for a modular, self-referencing ocean wave energy converter using linear/rotary converters, flywheels, and commercial generators.

9 May 85- Foerd discussed his work path, from high school photography and architecture to sustainable design, at his former school, Milton Academy, Milton, MA.

March 85- (See December 1979, R. Buckminster Fuller biography, and OWEB Map) Picking up a 1979 proposed college degree project, potential world wave energy extraction sites were explored using Fuller’s Dymaxion Map and globes. Movable edges defined a spherical icosahedron having twenty curved triangles. National waters and major shipping lanes were excluded from the wave energy conversion grid. Connection to Fuller’s proposed single global electric grid and 1% humanity locations were considered.

17 May 84- Foerd presented work and discussed sustainable design at his former school, Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, RI. See Autumn 80.

11-12 July 83- Three OWEC® modules were displayed at the outdoor Great Northeast Arts and Energy Festival, Gilford, New Hampshire. After her amazing performance, singer Phoebe Snow stopped by with insightful interest.

26 May 83- "Wave-energy converters beached by sinking funds" Christian Science Monitor

January 83- Contending minimal outside expertise and funds, acknowledged was need for functional and cost separation of WEC sea experiments from support structures, test equipment, and power management. Externally provided mooring, electrical “socket”, power conditioning, and data-driven WECs remote control were sought for SE New England deployment venues. USA and global coastal “wave hub” type launchpads were contemplated.

November-December 82- "It's Handsome and it Works" article about OWEC® was published in Marine Resources Information 124, University of Rhode Island. Two items need clarification. Foerd thought about the project in the hospital, and ever since, not “several years later”. The car was not wrecked but parked with engine and heat on. It had corroded underbody portions (See 29 April 78).

Autumn 82- Foerd corresponded about wave energy with 55 oil, gas, and related companies. Among tepid replies, Mobil stood out for at least engaging a brief dialogue.

24-26 September 82- (See 17-20 Sep 81) Three OWEC® modules and tank test media were displayed at the second Northeast Energy Exposition, Providence Civic Center, RI. All LEG linear electrical generators showed combined output on a meter. A dual projector photo slide show, with dissolve, showed stop-motion images of wave tank tests.

13 May 82- Three OWEC® modules produced electricity from unidirectional water waves.

November 81- Foerd designed, had constructed, and donated a flexible backsplash cover for the University of Rhode Island wave tank- not used.

1 October 81- Three OWEC® modules were displayed at the Providence Engineering Society Exhibition, Hearthstone Inn, Seekonk, MA. Three of nine series-connected LEGs were completed.

17-20 September 81- Three OWEC® modules were displayed at the Northeast Energy Exposition, Providence Civic Center, RI. One complete of nine LEG linear electrical generators showed output on an oscilloscope.

16 September 81- Providence Journal Bulletin printed a piece about OWEC® at the Northeast Energy Exposition.

September 81- Providence New Paper printed a piece about OWEC® at the Northeast Energy Exposition.

Providence WEAN Radio interview with Foerd:

Autumn 80- RISD Industrial Design Department kindly permitted Foerd to use milling machine, drill press, lathe, and other shop equipment. See Spring 80.

4 November 80- US Patent 4,232,230 issued for the first Ocean Wave Energy Converter using linear electrical generators.

August 80- Moore Plastics kindly donated nine butyrate floats for OWEC® working models.

July 80- (See July 06) Foerd learned the USPTO United States Patent Office had a trove of patent models, formerly required for patent application, just gathering dust in storage. Some of these models had ingenuity or beauty. He proposed a movable exhibit that fit in a customized semi-trailer. USPTO items would be packed for travel to schools and institutions, about USA, then "unfolded" on terraced displays. This mechanism would be nearly as clever as some of the inventions while also protecting them. Years later, the Invent America! program was initiated to foster an inventive spirit in America's schoolchildren. Yet the idea did not catch and many of the models are gone. 

June 80- Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute’s “Oceanus” magazine (Volume 22, Number 4, Winter 1979/80) focused on Ocean Energy. MIT Professor JN Newman’s article, “Power from Ocean Waves” informed about waves and other renewable ocean energies. Resonant tuning was cited as a method to amplify a buoy’s heaving motions. Curious, Foerd constructed and pool tested a heaving vertical cylinder. Variable mass was placed in the cylinder until it did seem tuned to a regular wave frequency and direction. Off-waves quickly disturbed amplified heaving and often nullified buoy motions. Result enforced design basis that optimal buoys are mostly submerged, to provide optimal buoyancy force, while also shaped to efficiently follow complex wave motions.

Spring 80- Foerd designed and constructed three OWEC® modules for his RISD Bachelor of Architecture degree project and graduated with his class. Several components were used in reconstructed modules for 1982 wave tank tests.

December 79- (See November 79) Twenty months after the accident, college degree project proposal elevated from mapping global ocean wave energy conversion sites to constructing three OWEC® Ocean Wave Energy Converter working models. The first OWEC® paper (pdf) satisfied a liberal arts requirement.

November 79- For his college degree project, Foerd proposed mapping global ocean wave energy conversion sites onto Buckminster Fuller’s Dymaxion Map.

October 79- OWEC® research application was submitted to the Alden Dow Ways of Life grants program, DOW Chemical Company.

September 79- OWEC® research application was submitted to the US DOE Department of Energy Appropriate Technology Small Grants Program.

June 79- US patent was applied for a modular, self-referencing ocean wave energy converter using linear electric generators.

Autumn 78- RISD permitted Foerd to perform a special study program of two courses. “Therapy Drawing” and “OWEC® Ocean Wave Energy Converter”. Activity focused on improving drawing hand motor skills and OWEC® development. He became dedicated to using wave energy generated electricity for desalinating and electrolyzing ocean water. Hydrogen could be used to power automobiles while emitting only water and some heat. Oxygen could invigorate ocean dead zones.

August 78- The architects for whom Foerd worked, during high school, kindly allowed him to practice drafting skills before returning to RISD.

May 78- (See 29 April 78) Emerging from a three day coma, with right arm thrombosis, substantial short term memory loss was symptomatic of CO poisoning. The OWEC® model was brought to the hospital, floated in a large, water-filled wastebasket, but Foerd did not recognize it. While in another hospital, he was accepted by US Department of Interior- Historic American Engineering Record to document existing conditions of Kalaupapa leprosy colony, Molokai, Hawaii. Having lived in Hawaii, summer 1976, the job was eagerly anticipated but declined. Summer was devoted to intensive physical and occupational therapy.

29 April 78- (See 11–14 April 78) Approximately 1 AM, automobile cab carbon monoxide infiltration asphyxiated Foerd and Joan. In the car ten hours before discovery, she succumbed and he was in coma. Rest positions constricted blood flow in his drawing arm.

21 April 78- (See March 78) A small OWEC® model deployed off Tillinghast Farm, Barrington, RI beach. Three brass tubes formed a tetrahedron connected to a bottom triangular sheet metal plate. A table tennis ball was secured below the apex. A fourth tube, extending upward from the top, contained a sliding brass rod and floating table tennis ball. The model was placed in the water and floated high. Using a hypodermic syringe, water was injected into the apex ball until the structure submerged to neutral buoyancy. Wave action reciprocated the floating ball and rod up and down within the tube. Air and spread weight positions helped to stabilize the structure in an upright position, generally similar to a popular children’s game, while the plate strongly resisted vertical movement.

11–14 April 78- Foerd drove Joan and George, three evenings from RISD to University of Massachusetts, Amherst, to attend extensive, inspiring lectures by Buckminster Fuller.

March 78- (See About Us) As part of a RISD architecture studio entitled "Ocean Habitat", in cooperation with URI University of Rhode Island Ocean Engineering Department, Foerd invented the OWEC® Ocean Wave Energy Converter. OWEC® may supply indigenous power, pure water, hydrogen, and oxygen to ocean-sited research and living facilities.

20 February 78- The RISD Department of Architecture moved to a single large facility with open floors, much window wall, and seas of drafting tables. The new 1 AM closure rule, and guard who accompanied the move, effectively eliminated possibility of doing “all-nighters”. Unacceptable- many two, three, four day, and one seven day sleepless runups to deadline seemed a RISD requirement. With need of walls for hanging drawings, and ulterior motive, Foerd’s sketch for passively transmitting outside views to underground structures became viable experiment. George helped construct a 10’x10’x10’ reinforced cardboard box containing two drafting tables. On one side, an 8’x10’x10’ tapering cardboard bellows was affixed with a 4” glass lens aimed through a window. The focused street view projected upside-down and backward onto a 10’x10’ Tyvek “film plane”. In addition to providing drawings walls, the camera obscura blocked light radiation. Silent work continued during the guard’s rounds.

15 February 78- Foerd nearly completed "The Shape of Things to Come" movie during RISD Rhode Island School of Design Wintersession. Concerning oil extraction, the grainy, rough animation would conclude with buildings and transportation systems attached to a geodesic spherical framework.


OWEC